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East Lansing, Michigan, United States

Katapodi M.C.,University of Michigan | Northouse L.L.,University of Michigan | Schafenacker A.M.,University of Michigan | Duquette D.,Cancer Genomics Program | And 9 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: The Michigan Prevention Research Center, the University of Michigan Schools of Nursing, Public Health, and Medicine, and the Michigan Department of Community Health propose a multidisciplinary academic-clinical practice three-year project to increase breast cancer screening among young breast cancer survivors and their cancer-free female relatives at greatest risk for breast cancer. Methods/design: The study has three specific aims: 1) Identify and survey 3,000 young breast cancer survivors (diagnosed at 20-45 years old) regarding their breast cancer screening utilization. 2) Identify and survey survivors' high-risk relatives regarding their breast cancer screening utilization. 3) Test two versions (Targeted vs. Enhanced Tailored) of an intervention to increase breast cancer screening among survivors and relatives. Following approval by human subjects review boards, 3,000 young breast cancer survivors will be identified through the Michigan Cancer Registry and mailed an invitation letter and a baseline survey. The baseline survey will obtain information on the survivors': a) current breast cancer screening status and use of genetic counseling; b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening; c) family health history. Based on the family history information provided by survivors, we will identify up to two high-risk relatives per survivor. Young breast cancer survivors will be mailed consent forms and baseline surveys to distribute to their selected high-risk relatives. Relatives' baseline survey will obtain information on their: a) current breast cancer screening status and use of genetic counseling; and b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening. Young breast cancer survivors and high-risk relatives will be randomized as a family unit to receive two versions of an intervention aiming to increase breast cancer screening and use of cancer genetic services. A follow-up survey will be mailed 9 months after the intervention to survivors and high-risk relatives to evaluate the efficacy of each intervention version on: a) use of breast cancer screening and genetic counseling; b) perceived barriers and facilitators to screening; c) self-efficacy in utilizing cancer genetic and screening services; d) family support related to screening; e) knowledge of breast cancer genetics; and f) satisfaction with the intervention. Discussion: The study will enhance efforts of the state of Michigan surrounding cancer prevention, control, and public health genomics. Trial registration: NCT01612338. © 2013 Katapodi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Shiels M.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Copeland G.,Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program | Goodman M.T.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Harrell J.,Utah Cancer Registry | And 4 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND It is unknown whether immunosuppression results in more aggressive, advanced stage cancers. Because cancer stage is influenced both by tumor biology and medical surveillance, the authors assessed cancer stage in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and solid organ transplant recipients, 2 immunosuppressed groups with differences in their health care use. METHODS The authors used data on all cases of 15 cancer types diagnosed during 1996 through 2010 in 2 studies that linked US cancer registries with HIV and transplant registries. Odds ratios (ORs) for advanced (vs local) disease were estimated comparing HIV and transplant populations with immunocompetent individuals in polytomous logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, registry, and year. RESULTS A total of 8411 of 4.5 million cancer cases occurred in HIV-infected individuals and 7322 of 6.4 million cancer cases occurred in transplant recipients. Compared with immunocompetent patients with cancer, those infected with HIV were more likely to be diagnosed with distant stage lung (OR, 1.13), female breast (OR, 1.99), and prostate (OR, 1.57) cancers, whereas transplant recipients had fewer distant stage lung (OR, 0.54), female breast (OR, 0.75), and prostate (OR, 0.72) cancers. Both immunosuppressed populations had a shift toward advanced stage melanoma (ORs of 1.97 for HIV-infected individuals and 1.82 for transplant recipients) and bladder cancer (ORs of 1.42 for HIV-infected individuals and 1.54 for transplant recipients). CONCLUSIONS Bladder cancer and melanoma were more likely to be diagnosed at a nonlocal stage in both HIV-infected individuals and transplant recipients, suggesting a role for immunosuppression in their progression. In addition, we observed a shift for some common cancers toward later stages in HIV-infected individuals and toward earlier stages in transplant recipients, which is consistent with differential access to medical care or surveillance. Cancer 2015;121:2063-2071. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Source

Koroukian S.M.,Case Western Reserve University | Dahman B.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Copeland G.,Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program | Bradley C.J.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Bradley C.J.,Massey Cancer Center
Health Services Research | Year: 2010

Objective. To compare the adequacy of the state buy-in variable (SBI) in the Medicare denominator file to identify dually eligible patients. Data Source/Study Settings. We used linked Medicare and Medicaid data from Michigan and Ohio for elders diagnosed with incident breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer between 1996 and 2001. Study Design. Using the Medicaid enrollment file as the "gold standard," we assessed the number of duals from Medicare files in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Data for the study population were linked with Medicare and Medicaid files using patient identifiers. Principal Findings. Sensitivity was low (74.2 percent, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 72.7, 75.6 and 80.8 percent, 79.7, 81.9, in Michigan and Ohio, respectively). PPV was above 95 percent in Michigan and 88.8 percent in Ohio. Both sensitivity and PPV varied between and within the states. Both in Michigan and in Ohio, we observed limited agreement on the length of enrollment in Medicaid between the two data sources. Conclusions. Except to examine disparities by dual status at a very broad level, the SBI variable alone may be inadequate to identify duals. The findings call for improvements in Medicare and Medicaid information management systems and for uniformity in database linking strategies. © 2010 Health Research and Educational Trust. Source

Steinau M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Unger E.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hernandez B.Y.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Goodman M.T.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a representative survey of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and its genotype distribution in invasive anal cancer specimens in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population-based archival anal cancer specimens were identified from Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, and Michigan cancer registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) tissue repositories in Hawaii, Iowa, and Los Angeles. Sections from 1 representative block per case were used for DNA extraction. All extracts were assayed first by linear array and retested with INNO-LiPA if inadequate or HPV negative. RESULTS: Among 146 unique invasive anal cancer cases, 93 (63.7%) were from women, and 53 (36.3%) were from men. Human papillomavirus (any type) was detected in 133 cases (91.1%) and 129 (88.4%) contained at least 1 high risk-type, most (80.1%) as a single genotype. Human papillomavirus type 16 had the highest prevalence (113 cases, 77.4%); HPV types 6, 11, 18, and 33 were also found multiple times. Among HPV-16-positive cases, 37% were identified as prototype variant Ep, and 63% were nonprototypes: 33% Em, 12% E-G131G, 5% Af1, 4% AA/NA-1, 3% E-C109G, 3% E-G131T, 2% As, and 1% Af2. No significant differences in the distributions of HPV (any), high-risk types, or HPV-16/18 were seen between sex, race, or age group. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of prevaccine HPV prevalence in the United States is critical to the surveillance of vaccine efficacy. Almost 80% of anal cancers were positive for the vaccine types HPV-16 or HPV-18, and in 70%, these were the only types detected, suggesting that a high proportion might be preventable by current vaccines. © 2013, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Source

Coghill A.E.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Shiels M.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Rycroft R.K.,Colorado Central Cancer Registry | Copeland G.,Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program | And 4 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2016

Objective: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is rare, but as with anal cancer, risk may be increased among immunosuppressed individuals. We assessed risk of rectal SCC in HIV-infected people. Design: Population-based registry. Methods: We utilized the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match, a linkage of US HIV and cancer registries (1991-2010), to ascertain cases of anal SCC, rectal SCC, rectal non-SCC, and colon non-SCC. We compared risk in HIV-infected persons with the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and evaluated risk factors using Poisson regression. We reviewed cancer registry case notes to confirm site and histology for a subset of cases. Results: HIV-infected persons had an excess risk of rectal SCC compared with the general population (SIR = 28.9; 95% CI 23.2-35.6), similar to the increase for anal SCC (SIR = 37.3). Excess rectal SCC risk was most pronounced among HIV-infected MSM (SIR = 61.2). Risk was not elevated for rectal non-SCC (SIR = 0.88) or colon non-SCC (SIR = 0.63). Individuals diagnosed with AIDS had higher rectal SCC rates than those with HIV-only (incidence rate ratio = 1.92; 95% CI 1.08-3.42). Based on available information, one-third of rectal SCCs were determined to be misclassified anal cancer. Conclusion: HIV-infected individuals, especially with advanced immunosuppression, appear to have substantially elevated risk for rectal SCC. As for anal SCC, rectal SCC risk was highest in MSM, pointing to involvement of a sexually transmitted infection such as human papillomavirus. Site misclassification was present, and detailed information on tumour location is needed to prove that rectal SCC is a distinct entity. © Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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