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Videan E.N.,Alamogordo Primate Facility | Videan E.N.,University of Michigan | Satterfield W.C.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Buchl S.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Lammey M.L.,Alamogordo Primate Facility
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

Uterine leiomyomata are common, affecting 70-80% of women between 30 and 50 years of age. Leiomyomata have been reported for a variety of primate species, although prevalence rates and treatments have not been widely reported. The prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of uterine leiomyomata in the Alamogordo Primate Facility and the Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research were examined. Uterine leiomyomata were diagnosed in 28.4% of chimpanzees with an average age at diagnosis of 30.4±8.0 years. Advanced age (>30 years) was related to an increase in leiomyomata and use of hormonal contraception was related to a decrease in leiomyomata. As the captive chimpanzee population ages, the incidence of leiomyomata among female chimpanzees will likely increase. The introduction of progesterone-based contraception for nonbreeding research and zoological chimpanzees may reduce the development of leiomyomata. Finally, all chimpanzee facilities should institute aggressive screening programs and carefully consider treatment plans. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Bukh J.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Bukh J.,Copenhagen University | Meuleman P.,Ghent University | Tellier R.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1-6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional animals. The courses of first- and second-passage infections were similar, with early appearance of viremia, HCV RNA titers of >104.7 IU/mL, and development of acute hepatitis; the chronicity rate was 56%. The challenge pools had titers of 103-105 chimpanzee infectious doses/mL. Human liver-chimeric mice developed high-titer infections after inoculation with the challenge viruses of genotypes 1-6. Inoculation studies with different doses of the genotype lb pool suggested that a relatively high virus dose is required to consistently infect chimeric mice. The challenge pools represent a unique resource for studies of HCV molecular virology and for studies of pathogenesis, protective immunity, and vaccine efficacy in vivo. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Hopper L.M.,Georgia State University | Hopper L.M.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Schapiro S.J.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Lambeth S.P.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | And 2 more authors.
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2011

Chimpanzees remain fixed on a single strategy, even if a novel, more efficient, strategy is introduced. Previous studies reporting such findings have incorporated paradigms in which chimpanzees learn one behavioural method and then are shown a new one that the chimpanzees invariably do not adopt. This study provides the first evidence that chimpanzees show such conservatism even when the new method employs the identical required behaviour as the first, but for a different reward. Groups of chimpanzees could choose to exchange one of two types of inedible tokens, with each token type being associated with a different food reward: one type was rewarded with a highly preferred food (grape) and the other type was rewarded with a less preferred food (carrot). Individuals first observed a model chimpanzee from their social group trained to choose one of the two types of tokens. In one group, this token earned a carrot, while in the other, control, group the token earned a grape. In both groups, chimpanzees conformed to the trained model's choice. This was especially striking for those gaining the pieces of carrot, the less favoured reward. This resulted in a population-level trend of food choices, even when counter to their original, individual, preferences. Moreover, the chimpanzees' food preferences did not change over time, demonstrating that these results were not due to a simple shift in preferences. We discuss social factors apparent in the interactions and suggest that, despite seeming to be inefficient, in chimpanzees, conformity may benefit them, possibly by assisting with the maintenance of group relations. © 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Source

Leavens D.A.,University of Sussex | Reamer L.A.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Mareno M.C.,Michale eling Center For Comparative Medicine And Research | Russell J.L.,Georgia State University | And 4 more authors.
Child Development | Year: 2015

Van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, "Do chimpanzees display distal communication?" Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc. Source

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