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Meneghini L.,University of Miami | Atkin S.L.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Gough S.C.L.,Oxford Center for Diabetes | Raz I.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-The requirement to inject current basal insulin analogs at a fixed time each daymay complicate adherence and compromise glycemic control. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of varying the daily injection time of insulin degludec (IDeg), an ultra-long-acting basal insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-This 26-week, open-label, treat-to-target trial enrolled adults (≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes who were either insulin naïve and receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (HbA1c = 7-11%) or previously on basal insulin ± OAD(s) (HbA1c = 7-10%). Participants were randomized to 1) once-daily (OD) IDeg in a prespecified dosing schedule, creating 8-40-h intervals between injections (IDeg OD Flex; n = 229); 2) once-daily IDeg at the main evening meal (IDegOD; n = 228); or 3) once-daily insulin glargine at the same time each day (IGlarOD; n = 230). The primary outcomewas noninferiority of IDegODFlex to IGlarODinHbA1c reduction after 26 weeks. RESULTS-After 26 weeks, IDeg OD Flex, IDeg OD, and IGlar OD improved HbA1c by 1.28, 1.07, and 1.26% points, respectively (estimated treatment difference [IDeg OD Flex 2 IGlar OD]: 0.04% points [-0.12 to 0.20], confirming noninferiority). No statistically significant differences in overall or nocturnal hypoglycemia were found between IDeg OD Flex and IGlar OD. Comparable glycemic control and rates of hypoglycemia were seen with IDeg OD Flex and IDeg OD. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS-The use of extreme dosing intervals of 8-40 h demonstrates that the daily injection time of IDeg can be varied without compromising glycemic control or safety. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Sathyapalan T.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Atkin S.L.,Diabetes
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age group that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In addition to its lipid-lowering effects, statin therapy has shown been shown to have beneficial pleiotropic effects that may contribute to their reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this review, the effect of statins on PCOS is discussed with reference to the underlying potential mechanism of action. © The Author(s), 2010.

Barrier S.,University of Hull | Barrier S.,Sporomex Ltd. | Lobbert A.,University of Hull | Boasman A.J.,University of Hull | And 6 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2010

Sporopollenin, which is a naturally occurring and highly resilient organic polymer constituting the external shell of spores and pollen grains, has been converted into a primary amine form with a loading of 0.58 ±0.04 mmol.g-1 by reductive amination with ammonia and lithium aluminium hydride successively. The presence of the amine and precursor amide groups were established by combustion elemental analysis, ICP-OES, FTIR, solid-state NMR and reactivity of the primary amine group to salt formation and nucleophilic addition and substitution with phenyl isothiocyanate and benzene sulfonyl chloride, respectively. This relatively simple conversion has served to provide further information regarding the presence and reactivity of carboxylic acid functions on this relatively uncharted polymer and offers aminosporopollenin as a new material for potential solid-phase applications. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wakil A.,Royal Infirmary | Wakil A.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Atkin S.L.,Michael White Diabetes Center
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2012

Insulin degludec may provide dosing options for patients who, because of their lifestyle, require some flexibility in adhering to an insulin regimen, and it may also reduce the risk of hypoglycemia compared with the basal insulins that are currently available. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Shor D.,Hull York Medical School | Sathyapalan T.,Hull York Medical School | Atkin S.L.,Hull York Medical School | Thatcher N.J.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Thatcher N.J.,Food Standards Agency
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Isoflavones, a group of phytoestrogens, are selective oestrogen receptor (ER) modulators. They may positively impact endocrine-related conditions but the current evidence is sparse. Equol, a non-steroidal oestrogen, is produced by the metabolism of the isoflavone daidzein by intestinal bacteria. In Western countries, 30-50% of individuals metabolize daidzein into equol and are known as equol producers. Equol production may be the source of benefit from isoflavones in endocrine disease. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

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