Michael White Diabetes Center

Hull, United Kingdom

Michael White Diabetes Center

Hull, United Kingdom
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Atkin S.L.,University of Hull | Atkin S.L.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Barrier S.,University of Hull | Cui Z.,University of Hull | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2011

We have investigated the UV-visible light transmission of three types of micrometre-sized sporopollenin exine shells, two derived from Lycopodium clavatum (club moss) spores and one from Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) pollen. We have used spectrophotometer measurements of partial monolayers of exines and microscope absorbance imaging to derive the light transmission properties of individual exines. Measurements have been made for exines in air when light transmission losses are due to a combination of absorption, reflection and scattering processes and for exines dispersed in a liquid for which the refractive index (RI) is approximately equal to the RI of the exine such that reflection and scattering effects are negligible. Overall, it found that the light transmission of a single exine wall is approximately 50%. This value of the transmission is due mainly to light absorption, is similar for the three exines studied here and varies only slightly with light wavelength over the range 200-900 nm. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Meneghini L.,University of Miami | Atkin S.L.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Gough S.C.L.,Churchill Hospital | Raz I.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE-The requirement to inject current basal insulin analogs at a fixed time each daymay complicate adherence and compromise glycemic control. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of varying the daily injection time of insulin degludec (IDeg), an ultra-long-acting basal insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-This 26-week, open-label, treat-to-target trial enrolled adults (≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes who were either insulin naïve and receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (HbA1c = 7-11%) or previously on basal insulin ± OAD(s) (HbA1c = 7-10%). Participants were randomized to 1) once-daily (OD) IDeg in a prespecified dosing schedule, creating 8-40-h intervals between injections (IDeg OD Flex; n = 229); 2) once-daily IDeg at the main evening meal (IDegOD; n = 228); or 3) once-daily insulin glargine at the same time each day (IGlarOD; n = 230). The primary outcomewas noninferiority of IDegODFlex to IGlarODinHbA1c reduction after 26 weeks. RESULTS-After 26 weeks, IDeg OD Flex, IDeg OD, and IGlar OD improved HbA1c by 1.28, 1.07, and 1.26% points, respectively (estimated treatment difference [IDeg OD Flex 2 IGlar OD]: 0.04% points [-0.12 to 0.20], confirming noninferiority). No statistically significant differences in overall or nocturnal hypoglycemia were found between IDeg OD Flex and IGlar OD. Comparable glycemic control and rates of hypoglycemia were seen with IDeg OD Flex and IDeg OD. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS-The use of extreme dosing intervals of 8-40 h demonstrates that the daily injection time of IDeg can be varied without compromising glycemic control or safety. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Wakil A.,Royal Infirmary | Wakil A.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Atkin S.L.,Michael White Diabetes Center
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2012

Insulin degludec may provide dosing options for patients who, because of their lifestyle, require some flexibility in adhering to an insulin regimen, and it may also reduce the risk of hypoglycemia compared with the basal insulins that are currently available. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Shor D.,Hull York Medical School | Sathyapalan T.,Hull York Medical School | Atkin S.L.,Hull York Medical School | Thatcher N.J.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Thatcher N.J.,Food Standards Agency
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Isoflavones, a group of phytoestrogens, are selective oestrogen receptor (ER) modulators. They may positively impact endocrine-related conditions but the current evidence is sparse. Equol, a non-steroidal oestrogen, is produced by the metabolism of the isoflavone daidzein by intestinal bacteria. In Western countries, 30-50% of individuals metabolize daidzein into equol and are known as equol producers. Equol production may be the source of benefit from isoflavones in endocrine disease. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Madden L.A.,University of Hull | Chrismas B.C.,University of Hull | Mellor D.,University of Hull | Mellor D.,Michael White Diabetes Center | And 7 more authors.
Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2010

Introduction: Decompression sickness is caused by gas bubbles released upon decompression. These bubbles have the potential to occlude blood vessels and damage the vascular endothelium. The aim of this study was to quantify damage to the vascular endothelium resulting from decompression by measuring endothelial microparticles (MP) and endothelial function. Methods: Five healthy male volunteers undertook a simulated (hyperbaric chamber) air dive and 1 wk later a second dive breathing 100% oxygen at 283 kPa (18 msw) for 60 min bottom time, decompressed with 5-min stops at 161 kPa (6 msw) and 131 kPa (3 msw). Endothelial function was tested pre- and postdive by reactive hyperemia peripheral artery tonometry (RH-PAT) and CD105 (Endoglin) positive MP were quantified by flow cytometry. Plasma E- and P-selectin, interleukin-6, and serum cortisol were also quantified. Results: RH-PAT showed a significantly decreased endothelial function post-decompression after breathing air when compared to oxygen (-0.33 ± 0.27 vs. +0.18 ± 0.14). CD105 MP pre- and postdive showed no change on the oxygen dive (460 ± 370 to 360 ± 163), however, they increased after breathing air (440 ± 70 to 1306 ± 359). There was no change in expression of CD105 on MP. Furthermore no changes were observed in plasma E- or P-selectin, IL-6, or serum cortisol. Conclusion: From the data, at least in the time frame involved, there appears to be no detectable physiological/stress response to decompression, rather decompression from breathing air probably caused mechanical damage to the endothelium, resulting in both MP release and a reduction in endothelial function. Copyright © by the Aerospace Medical Association.

Sathyapalan T.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Atkin S.L.,Michael White Diabetes Center
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers, but population studies have not clarified whether there is an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Four different PCOS phenotypes resulted from the Rotterdam criteria that may differ in their CVR potential, thus introducing further complexity. This has led to studies using surrogate CVR markers including biomarkers in blood and imaging such as flow-mediated vasodilatation. In PCOS, both peripheral and central insulin resistance (IR) have been shown. Weight loss has been shown to improve IR and visceral fat, while insulin sensitizer therapies with metformin or thiazolidinediones improve IR and endothelial dysfunction. IR is also found in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that in turn is very common in PCOS; studies have suggested that IR may be improved by treatment with metformin and omega-3 fish oils. PCOS patients have a more dyslipidemic phenotype that is worse in 'classical PCOS' associated with a higher CVR. Studies with atorvastatin and simvastatin have reported a decrease in the lipid parameters and an improvement in CVR indices including IR, but it is unclear whether this is due to their lipid-lowering action or a pleiotropic effect of the statin. In this expert opinion review, the relevant literature published during the last 2 years was considered. It focuses on some recent important data that has emerged while also exposing the gaps that remain in our knowledge that need to be addressed. © 2012 European Society of Endocrinology.

Sathyapalan T.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Sathyapalan T.,University of Hull | Beckett S.,University of Hull | Rigby A.S.,University of Hull | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods. We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results. Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion. This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. © 2010 Sathyapalan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sathyapalan T.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Atkin S.L.,Diabetes
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age group that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In addition to its lipid-lowering effects, statin therapy has shown been shown to have beneficial pleiotropic effects that may contribute to their reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this review, the effect of statins on PCOS is discussed with reference to the underlying potential mechanism of action. © The Author(s), 2010.

Barrier S.,University of Hull | Barrier S.,Sporomex Ltd. | Lobbert A.,University of Hull | Boasman A.J.,University of Hull | And 6 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2010

Sporopollenin, which is a naturally occurring and highly resilient organic polymer constituting the external shell of spores and pollen grains, has been converted into a primary amine form with a loading of 0.58 ±0.04 mmol.g-1 by reductive amination with ammonia and lithium aluminium hydride successively. The presence of the amine and precursor amide groups were established by combustion elemental analysis, ICP-OES, FTIR, solid-state NMR and reactivity of the primary amine group to salt formation and nucleophilic addition and substitution with phenyl isothiocyanate and benzene sulfonyl chloride, respectively. This relatively simple conversion has served to provide further information regarding the presence and reactivity of carboxylic acid functions on this relatively uncharted polymer and offers aminosporopollenin as a new material for potential solid-phase applications. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wakil A.,Michael White Diabetes Center | Atkin S.L.,Michael White Diabetes Center
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

All patients with type 1 diabetes and significant numbers of those with type 2 diabetes are treated with insulin. Nonadherence to insulin regimen can impact glycaemic control. Insulin degludec is a new generation, ultra-long-acting basal insulin that forms soluble multihexamers at the injection site that slowly release insulin degludec monomers into the circulation giving a prolonged duration of action. Insulin degludec may provide a safe and convenient dosing option for patients who require some flexibility in adhering to an insulin regimen according to their lifestyle or circumstances. In this review we focus on the early phases of insulin degludec development. © The Author(s), 2012.

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