Michael Okpara University of Agriculture

Umuahia, Nigeria

The Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, originally the Federal University of Agriculture, is a federal university in Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria established as a specialized University by a Federal Government of Nigeria Decree No 48 of November 1992. It began formal activities in May 1993 with the appointment of the first Council and Vice-Chancellor Professor Placid C. Njoku on 27 May 1993, while other key officials of the University were appointed later.The first set of students were admitted into the institution during the 1993/94 academic year with a student population of 82.The nickname "Umudykes" or "U'dykers" refers to students, alumni, and sports teams of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture. Wikipedia.

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Ezeja M.I.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture | Anaga A.O.,University of Nigeria | Asuzu I.U.,University of Nigeria
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Gouania longipetala leaves are commonly used in folkloric medicine in Africa and other parts of the world for treatment of edema, febrifuges, veneral diseases, lumbago, heart diseases, diabetes mellitus malaria, etc. This study therefore evaluated safety profile of the methanol leaf extract of the plant using acute and sub-chronic studies in rat model. Materials and methods Acute toxicity test of the plant lasted for 48 h with oral administration of graded doses (100-4000 mg/kg) of Gouania longipetala extract (GLE) in rats. The rats were observed for signs of toxicity and death. The sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by administration of different doses (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) of GLE daily in feed for 90 days. On days, 30, 60 and 90, blood samples collected from the retro-orbital plexus of the eye of the rats were used for evaluation of serum biochemistry, hematology, lipid peroxidation and in vivo antioxidant activities. Histopathological evaluations of the kidney, liver, lungs and heart were also done. Results The acute toxicity test revealed no observable signs of toxicity or morbidity. Sub-chronic study showed that GLE significantly (p<0.05) increased relative liver weight on day 90 at 10 mg/kg. There were no significant variations in the hematological parameters of both GLE treated and untreated rats. The extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoproteins and increased high density lipoproteins which was more prominent on day 90 at the dose of 10 mg/kg. The extract significantly (p<0.05) increased liver enzyme markers at the doses used. GLE also significantly (p<0.05) increased serum urea at the dose of 10 mg/kg on day 90. The extract caused dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase and decrease in malondiadehyde. Histopathological studies revealed degenerative changes in the kidney and liver. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that Gouania longipetala is well tolerated in short term therapies, but may have long term toxic effects on the kidney and liver. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Osuagwuh U.I.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
Global Veterinaria | Year: 2014

Twenty two indigenous West African Dwarf bucks aged between 11/2 and 2 years, weighing between 8 and 12kg were used in this investigation. Eight bucks were infected with T. brucei, another eight with T. vivax and six served as controls. All infected bucks developed clinical signs of trypanosomiasis which was characterised by intermittent pyrexia, weight loss, weakness, lethargy, rough hair coats, pale mucous membrane and sometimes diarrhoea. Samples from preputial scraping and washing from four bucks out of eight bucks tested positive in T.brucei infected bucks while all samples in the T.vivax infected bucks tested positive on one or more occasions. No positive results were obtained from the control animals as well as from the infected group when treated. This study confirms the excretion of trypanosomes in the preputial material of infected West African Dwarf bucks. © IDOSI Publications, 2014.

Ibeh B.O.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture | Ezeaja M.I.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Axonopus Compressus is commonly used by the people of Southern Nigeria to treat different ailment such as common cold and diabetes. This study therefore, evaluated the anti-diabetic effect of the methanolic leaf extract of the plant. Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced in the rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alloxan monohydrate at the dose of 180 mg/kg. Three test doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) administered per os through gastric gavage to the rats were used in the study. The activity was compared to a standard reference drug (glibenclamide, 2 mg/kg) and a negative control. Blood from the tail snip was used to measure the effects of the extract and drug at 0, 1, 3 and 6 h using autoanalyzer (AccuCheck Active ®) glucose kit. Results: Methanolic leaf extract of Axonopus compressus at all the doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) used caused a respective time dependent and significant (p < 0.0001) reduction (by 31.5%, 19.8% and 24.5%) of the blood glucose levels in the diabetic rats when compared to the negative control group at the 6th hour. However, the reference drug (glibenclamide, 2 mg/kg) decreased the blood glucose levels by 69.9% and the tween 20 solution (negative control) increased the blood glucose level by 15.2% at the 6th hour. Moreso, the extract at the different test doses caused various degrees of reduction of the blood glucose levels of the test rats at 1st, 3rd and 6th hours when compared to the negative control rats. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Axonopus compressus may possess antidiabetic property. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ezeigbo I.I.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2012

The effect of methanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida leaves on diabetes and associated lipidemia were investigated on experimentally-induced diabetic rats. The extract did not demonstrate any acutely toxic effect in rats within the dose range (250 mg/kg - 2000 mg/kg) employed in the study; hence it was well tolerated by the rats. In all experiments, the anti-diabetic effects were dose-dependent and comparable to that of glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) standard. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, lipid profile markers such as the serum total cholesterol (TC) levels, LDL-C, triglycerides and HDL-C were significantly lower (p <0.05) than those of both the treated and untreated controls.

Egbuonu A.C.C.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2015

The proximate and functional properties of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind and seed flour were investigated, using standard methods. The proximate compositions (%) for the rind and seed, respectively were moisture (5.12±0.01, 3.81±0.00), dry matter (94.88±0.01, 96.20±0.00), lipid/fat (1.05±0.01, 41.84±0.04), crude protein (7.04±0.00, 21.46±0.04), carbohydrate (80.75±0.04, 28.05±0.06), crude ash (3.07±0.00, 2.48±0.01) and crude fibre (2.98±0.00, 2.37±0.00). The energy value (360.59*0.01, 574.58±0.30 kcal), total sugar (0.47±0.01, 3.23±0.02%) and total soluble sugar (1.42±0.01, 4.87±0.00%), respectively for the rind and seed were lower in the rind than in the seed sample. The functional properties (%) for the rind and seed, respectively viz. water absorption capacity (7.13±00, 116.3±00), oil absorption capacity (1.65±00, 123.5±00), foaming capacity (5.65±00, 21.5±00), foaming stability (20.75±00, 60.5±00) and emulsion stability (0.28±00) were higher in the seed sample. The difference in value of the parameters for the samples, aside emulsion stability, ash and fibre, were significant (p<0.05). The results imply that the flour of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed, followed by that of the rind, has nutrient, energy, storage and industrial potentials which could increase their utilization thereby preventing a possible adverse environmental effect. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

Nwabueze T.U.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Techniques involving choosing process combinations for optimisation without due consideration for relevant experimental designs is scientifically unreliable and irreproducible. Mathematical modelling, of which response surface methodology (RSM) is one, provides a precise map leading to successful optimisation. This paper identified key process variables, building the model and searching the solution through multivariate regression analysis, interpretation of resulting polynomial equations and response surface/contour plots as basic steps in adapting the central composite design to achieve process optimisation. It also gave information on appropriate RSM software packages and choice of order in RSM model and data economy in reducing the factorial experiments from large number parameter combinations to a far less number without losing any information including quadratic and interaction (if present) effects. It is expected that this paper will afford many food scientists and researchers the opportunity for adapting RSM as a mathematical model for achieving bioprocess optimisation in food systems. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Ejike C.E.C.C.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2011

The aetiology of chronic prostatitis is poorly understood. A cross-sectional study of a population of male undergraduates in Nigeria, using a questionnaire containing the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and some other relevant sex-related questions, was conducted. A total of 14.9% of the population had chronic prostatitis symptoms (CPSs) defined as a pain score of four or more on the NIH-CPSI pain subscale. Approximately 26 or 12%of the population had at least one, or ≥ 2 location(s) of pain, respectively. The presence of CPS was found to correlate with a self-reported history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) (r = +0.237; P < 0.05) and 73% of those with a self-reported history of STI had CPS. Both voiding scores and quality-of-life scores were significantly higher in subjects with CPS, compared with those without CPS. Self-reported history of STI may be an important aetiological factor for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain symptoms.

Ezeigbo I.I.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries | Year: 2010

Background: The effect of the methanolic leaf extracts of Icacina trichantha on blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetes in mice was investigated. Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced by the injection of 150 mg/kg (i.p.) of alloxan monohydrate freshly dissolved in distilled water. Three doses (200, 300, and 450 mg/kg) per os, of the extracts were administered in the study. The activity was compared with reference standard glibenclamide (2 mg/kg, p.o.) and negative control. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic mice with the crude extract of I. trichantha leaves brought down the raised blood glucose levels significantly (P < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The result suggests that I. trichantha possesses antidiabetic property.

Stand-alone solar photovoltaic power systems are natural options for application in the electrification of remote areas which are outside the grid connected electricity supply systems. They represent a vast and varied range of possibilities. A standard and durable stand-alone photovoltaic system with more than 20 years life expectancy for handling household appliances in remote residential locations has been designed. This was necessitated by the fact that most rural villages are not connected to the national grid supply which has been very epileptic, unsteady and unpredicted even when available. Also, the technical overview of this system and the impact of solar irradiance on the performance of photovoltaic cells are presented. Further, the system's design including the general load evaluation and the ampere-hour method of sizing the system and its balance-of-system components are adopted and consolidated. From the design performance, the calculated ampere-hour load was estimated at 1388.88 AH/day with a system design current of 374.92 Amps and a peak current of 232.74 Amps, while the corrected ampere-hour load was 1574.66 AH/day, respectively. These, have the capacity of derating the current at 416.58 Amps utilizing a total of 640 modules and 144 deep-charge solar photovoltaic batteries. © 2011 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Ejike C.E.C.C.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
Italian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Background: The age-, gender-, and height-percentile requirements of the 'gold-standard' for the diagnosis of (pre)hypertension in adolescents make it time-consuming for clinicians and difficult-to-use by non-professionals. Simplified diagnostic tools are therefore needed. The use of blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) - systolic BPHR (SBPHR) and diastolic BPHR (DBPHR) - has been reported in Han adolescents, but it requires validation in other racial groups. The diagnostic accuracy of SBPHR and DBPHR in a population of 1,173 Nigerian adolescents aged 11-17 years, was therefore studied. Methods. Blood pressures were measured using standard procedures and (pre)hypertension were defined according to international recommendations. ROC curve analyses were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of BPHR in defining (pre)hypertension in this population. Sex-specific threshold values for SBPHR and DBPHR were determined, and thereafter used to define (pre)hypertension. The sensitivity/specificity of this method was determined. Results: The accuracies of SBPHR and DBPHR in diagnosing (pre)hypertension, in both sexes, was >92%. The optimal thresholds for diagnosing prehypertension were 0.72/0.46 in boys and 0.73/0.48 in girls; while for hypertension, they were 0.75/0.51 in boys and 0.77/0.50 in girls. The sensitivity and specificity of this method were >96%. Conclusions: The use of BPHR is valid, simple and accurate in this population. Race-specific thresholds are however needed. © 2011 Ejike; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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