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Haneef Z.,Baylor College of Medicine | Haneef Z.,Michael key Medical Center | Chiang S.,Rice University | Yeh H.J.,University of California | And 3 more authors.
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2015

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory-based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality was performed on resting-state fMRI data in 48 subjects: 24 controls, 13 patients with left TLE, and 11 patients with right TLE. Various network parameters were analyzed including betweenness centrality (BC), clustering coefficient (CC), path length (PL), small-world index (SWI), global efficiency (GE), connectivity strength (CS), and connectivity diversity (CD). These were compared for patients with TLE as a group, compared to controls, and for patients with left and right TLE separately. The association of changes in network parameters with epilepsy duration was also evaluated. We found that CC, CS, and CD decreased in subjects with TLE compared to control subjects. Analyzed according to epilepsy duration, patients with TLE showed a progressive reduction in CD. In conclusion, we found that several network parameters decreased in patients with TLE compared to controls, which suggested reduced connectivity in TLE. Reduction in CD associated with epilepsy duration suggests a homogenization of connections over time in TLE, indicating a reduction of the normal repertoire of stronger and weaker connections to other brain regions. © 2015.


Tan R.S.,Michael key Medical Center | Tan R.S.,Baylor College of Medicine | Tan R.S.,University of Houston | Tan R.S.,Low T Institute | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Men's Health | Year: 2015

Testosterone replacement improves quality of life and is aromatized in men in adipose tissues to estrogen. Hyperestrogenism is believed to be harmful to male sexuality. This is a description of our experience of screening 34,016 men in the Low T Centers, of which approximately 50% were converted to treatment. Men were treated with injectable testosterone, and we have available data from 2009 to 2014. The data were extracted from our electronic health record (AdvancedMD) of 35 Low T Centers across the United States. In all, 7,215 (20.2%) out of the 34,016 patients had high estradiol levels defined as ≥42.6 pg/ml. Estradiol was measured using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Of the patients who had high estradiol levels, the age distribution was as follows: 132/989 (13.3%) were older than 65 years, 3,753/16,955 (22.1%) were between 45 and 65 years; 2,968/15,857 (18.7%) were between 25 and 44 years, 7/215 (3.3%) were younger than 25 years. The difference between extreme age groups (<25 and ≥65) was statistically significant using a chi-square test (p =.013). The correlation coefficient of serum estradiol to age was.53, SD = 8.21. It was observed that practitioners used aromatase inhibitor and selective estrogen receptor modulator to treat symptoms of hyperestrogenism, irrespective of blood estradiol levels. Gynecomastia was rarely documented as a reason for the prescription. Our finding was that high estradiol levels were not associated with higher rates of low libido but established higher rates of documented low libido with those with normal or lower estradiol levels. The difference was statistically significant (p <.05). © The Author(s) 2014.


Fitzmorris P.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Shoreibah M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Anand B.S.,Michael key Medical Center | Singal A.K.,University of Alabama at Birmingham
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common cause for cancer-related death, is increasing worldwide. Over the past decade, survival and quality of life of HCC patients have significantly improved due to better prevention strategies, early diagnosis, and improved treatment options. We performed this narrative review to synthesize current status on the HCC management. Methods: Literature search for publications especially over the last decade, which has changed the paradigm on the management of HCC. Results: Hepatitis B vaccination and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C are important measures for HCC prevention. Screening and surveillance for HCC using ultrasonogram and alpha-fetoprotein estimation are directed toward cirrhotics and hepatitis B patients at high risk of HCC. If detected at an early stage, curative treatments for HCC can be used such as tumor resection, ablation and liver transplantation. HCC patients without curative options are managed by loco-regional therapies and systemic chemotherapy. Loco-regional treatments include trans-arterial chemoembolization, radioembolization and combinations of loco-regional plus systemic therapies. Currently, sorafenib is the only FDA-approved systemic therapy and newer better chemotherapeutic agents are being investigated. Palliative care for terminally ill patients with metastatic disease and/or poor functional status focusses on comfort care and symptom control. Conclusions: In spite of significant advancement in HCC management, its incidence continues to rise. There remains an urgent need to continue refining understanding of HCC and develop strategies to increase utilization of the available preventive measures and curative treatment modalities for HCC. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Liang A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Liang A.,Chongqing Medical University | Wang Y.,Baylor College of Medicine | Woodard L.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Glutathione transferase isozyme A4 (GSTA4) exhibits high catalytic efficiency to metabolize 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a highly reactive lipid peroxidation product that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases. We investigated the role of 4-HNE in the mechanisms of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)- induced fibrosis and its modulation by GSTA4-4 in a mouse model. Our data indicate that after UUO, accumulation of 4-HNE and its adducts were increased in renal tissues, with a concomitant decrease in the expression of GSTA4-4 in mice. As compared to wild-type (WT) mice, UUO caused an increased expression of fibroblast markers in the interstitium of GSTA4 KO mice. Additionally, increased autophagy and tubular cell damage were more severe in UUO-treated GSTA4 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, GSK-3β phosphorylation and expression of Snail, a regulator of E-cadherin and Occludin, was found to be significantly higher in UUO-inflicted GSTA4 KO mice. GSTA4 over-expression prevented 4-HNE-induced autophagy activation, tubular cell damage and Snail nuclear translocation in vitro. The effects of long-term expression of GSTA4 in restoration of UUO-induced damage in mice with the GSTA4 inducible transposon system indicated that release of obstruction after 3 days of UUO resulted in the attenuation of interstitial SMAa and collagen I expression. This transposon-delivered GSTA4 expression also suppressed UUO-induced loss of tubular cell junction markers and autophagy activation. Together, these results indicate that 4-HNE significantly contributes to the mechanisms of tubule injury and fibrosis and that these effects can be inhibited by the enhanced expression of GSTA4-4. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Philips R.C.,Baylor College of Medicine | Motaparthi K.,Baylor College of Medicine | Krishnan B.,Baylor College of Medicine | Krishnan B.,Michael key Medical Center | Hsu S.,Baylor College of Medicine
Dermatology Online Journal | Year: 2012

HIV photodermatitis encompasses a variety of clinical manifestations. We report a rare clinical presentation of HIV photodermatitis with widespread vitiligo-like depigmentation. © 2012 Dermatology Online Journal.

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