Nalls M.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging |
Pankratz N.,University of Minnesota |
Lill C.M.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics |
Lill C.M.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz |
And 53 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014
We conducted a meta-analysis of Parkinson's disease genome-wide association studies using a common set of 7,893,274 variants across 13,708 cases and 95,282 controls. Twenty-six loci were identified as having genome-wide significant association; these and 6 additional previously reported loci were then tested in an independent set of 5,353 cases and 5,551 controls. Of the 32 tested SNPs, 24 replicated, including 6 newly identified loci. Conditional analyses within loci showed that four loci, including GBA, GAK-DGKQ, SNCA and the HLA region, contain a secondary independent risk variant. In total, we identified and replicated 28 independent risk variants for Parkinson's disease across 24 loci. Although the effect of each individual locus was small, risk profile analysis showed substantial cumulative risk in a comparison of the highest and lowest quintiles of genetic risk (odds ratio (OR) = 3.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.55-4.30; P = 2 × 10-16). We also show six risk loci associated with proximal gene expression or DNA methylation. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Goetz C.G.,Rush University Medical Center |
Stebbins G.T.,Rush University Medical Center |
Chung K.A.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Hauser R.A.,University of South Florida |
And 11 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013
Numerous scales assess dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD), variably focusing on anatomical distribution, phenomenology, time, severity, and disability. No study has compared these scales and their relative ability to detect change related to an established treatment. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial of amantadine, assessing dyskinesia at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks using the following scales: Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), Lang-Fahn Activities of Daily Living Dyskinesia Rating Scale (LF), 26-Item Parkinson's Disease Dyskinesia scale (PDD-26), patient diaries, modified Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS), Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale (RDRS), dyskinesia items from the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), and Clinical Global Impression (severity and change: CGI-S, CGI-C). Scale order was randomized at each visit, but raters were aware of each scale as it was administered. Sensitivity to treatment was assessed using effect size. Sixty-one randomized dyskinetic PD subjects (31 amantadine, 30 placebo) completed the study. Four of the 8 scales (CGI-C, LF, PDD-26, and UDysRS) detected a significant treatment. The UDysRS Total Score showed the highest effect size (η2 = 0.138) for detecting treatment-related change, with all other scales having effect sizes < 0.1. No scale was resistant to placebo effects. This study resolves 2 major issues useful for future testing of new antidyskinesia treatments: among tested scales, the UDysRS, having both subjective and objective dyskinesia ratings, is superior for detecting treatment effects; and the magnitude of the UDysRS effect size from amantadine sets a clear standard for comparison for new agents. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.
Davies P.,University of Dundee |
Hinkle K.M.,Mayo Clinic Jacksonville |
Sukar N.N.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Sepulveda B.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
And 10 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2013
Missense mutations in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) are a major cause of PD (Parkinson's disease). Several antibodies against LRRK2 have been developed, but results using these polyclonal antibodies have varied widely leading to conflicting conclusions. To address this challenge, the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research generated a number of monoclonal antibodies targeting epitopes across the LRRK2 protein. In the present paper, we report optimized protocols and results for ten monoclonal antibodies for immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation and kinase activity assays, in rat, mouse and human brain tissue. Several efficacious antibodies were identified, but results demonstrate that the mouse monoclonal N241A/34 is suitable for most applications, with the best overall rabbit monoclonal antibody being c41-2. These antibodies produced a dominant band of the expected size via immunoblotting and a lack of labelling in tissue derived from LRRK2-knockout animals under optimized conditions. A significant proportion of LRRK2 protein localizes to insoluble fractions and no evidence of truncated LRRK2 protein was detected in any fraction from rodent or human tissues. An assay was developed for the robust detection of LRRK2 kinase activity directly from frozen mouse and human brain tissue, but precipitous declines in activity were observed that corresponded to increasing post-mortem intervals and processing times. Finally, we demonstrate the highest levels of brain-localized LRRK2 in the striatum, but note differential expression patterns between rat and mouse in both striatum and cortex. Anti-LRRK2 monoclonal antibodies that are unlimited in availability together with the proposed standardized protocols should aid in the definition of LRRK2 function in both health and disease. © 2013 The Author(s).
Frasier M.,Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research |
Chowdhury S.,Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research |
Eberling J.,Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research |
Sherer T.,Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research
Biomarkers in Medicine | Year: 2010
Therapeutic development in Parkinsons disease is hampered by the paucity of well-validated biomarkers that can assist with diagnosis and/or tracking the progression of the disease. Since its inception, the Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research has invested heavily in biomarker research and continues to prioritize discovery and development efforts. This article summarizes the history and evolution of the Michael J Fox Foundations role in supporting biomarker research and lays out the current challenges in successfully developing markers that can be used to test therapies, while also providing a vision of future funding efforts in Parkinsons disease biomarkers. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.
Sherer T.B.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2011
Biomarkers for detecting the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) could accelerate development of new treatments. Such biomarkers could be used to identify individuals at risk for developing PD, to improve early diagnosis, to track disease progression with precision, and to test the efficacy of new treatments. Although some progress has been made, there are many challenges associated with developing biomarkers for detecting PD in its earliest stages.
Baptista M.A.S.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research |
Dave K.D.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research |
Sheth N.P.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research |
De Silva S.N.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research |
And 5 more authors.
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2013
Progress in Parkinson's disease (PD) research and therapeutic development is hindered by many challenges, including a need for robust preclinical animal models. Limited availability of these tools is due to technical hurdles, patent issues, licensing restrictions and the high costs associated with generating and distributing these animal models. Furthermore, the lack of standardization of phenotypic characterization and use of varying methodologies has made it difficult to compare outcome measures across laboratories. In response, The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research (MJFF) is directly sponsoring the generation, characterization and distribution of preclinical rodent models, enabling increased access to these crucial tools in order to accelerate PD research. To date, MJFF has initiated and funded the generation of 30 different models, which include transgenic or knockout models of PD-relevant genes such as Park1 (also known as Park4 and SNCA), Park8 (LRRK2), Park7 (DJ-1), Park6 (PINK1), Park2 (Parkin), VPS35, EiF4G1 and GBA. The phenotypic characterization of these animals is performed in a uniform and streamlined manner at independent contract research organizations. Finally, MJFF created a central repository at The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) that houses both non-MJFF and MJFF-generated preclinical animal models. Funding from MJFF, which subsidizes the costs involved in transfer, rederivation and colony expansion, has directly resulted in over 2500 rodents being distributed to the PD community for research use. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Eberling J.L.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research |
Eberling J.L.,Michael J Fox Foundation |
Dave K.D.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research |
Frasier M.A.,Michael J Fox Foundation For Parkinsons Research
Journal of Parkinson's Disease | Year: 2013
The development of an α-synuclein imaging agent could be transformative for Parkinson's disease research and drug development. The ability to image α-synuclein in the brain would enable tracking of the degree and location of pathology over time and monitoring of therapies aimed at reducing α-synuclein levels. The Michael J. Fox Foundation has assembled a consortium of researchers to develop an α-synuclein radiotracer for use in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. While this poses a number of challenges they should not be insurmountable and lessons learned from the development of tau radiotracers should provide valuable insights. © 2013 -IOS Press and the authors.