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Sun H.-Q.,Baylor College of Medicine | Sun H.-Q.,Peking University | Chen H.-M.,Peking University | Yang F.-D.,Peking University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal on Addictions | Year: 2014

Background and Objectives Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have quickly spread and been widely abused in many parts of the world, particularly in China. This review focuses on and describes the epidemiological trends and the advances of treatments of ATS in China. Methods A descriptive study based on literature identified from searches of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979-2013), PubMed databases, hand-picked references, and online references with emphasis on epidemiology, treatment and traditional Chinese medicine. This review covers some traditional Chinese treatments and their complementary Western approaches. Results and Conclusions The epidemiological trends of ATS in China have led to its being 2.2 times the rate of morphine abuse and second only to marijuana abuse. The treatment programs in China have used traditional herbal approaches as well as acupuncture, often in combination with Western medications such as fluoxetine for depression associated with ATS abuse. Other herbal treatments have reversed the cardiac arrhythmias associated with ATS intoxication, and acupuncture has been used successfully for the protracted depressive and somatic symptoms of ATS withdrawal over a period of 3 months. Scientific Significance These traditional Chinese treatments may be increasingly available to the world, but will remain a consistent complementary therapy for ATS in China and the Far East, where ATS has become such a prevalent problem. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.


Hira R.S.,Baylor College of Medicine | Kennedy K.,Saint Lukes Hospital | Nambi V.,Baylor College of Medicine | Nambi V.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

Background: Among patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and low 10-year CVD risk, the risks of gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhagic strokes associated with aspirin use outweigh any potential atheroprotective benefit. According to the guidelines on primary prevention of CVD, aspirin use is considered appropriate only in patients with 10-year CVD risk ≥6% and inappropriate in patients with 10-year CVD risk <6%. Objectives: The goal of this study was to examine the frequency and practice-level variation in inappropriate aspirin use for primary prevention in a large U.S. nationwide registry. Methods: Within the National Cardiovascular Disease Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence registry, we assessed 68,808 unique patients receiving aspirin for primary prevention from 119 U.S. practices. The frequency of inappropriate aspirin use was determined for primary prevention (aspirin use in those with 10-year CVD risk <6%). Using hierarchical regression models, the extent of practice-level variation using the median rate ratio (MRR) was assessed. Results: Inappropriate aspirin use frequency was 11.6% (7,972 of 68,808) in the overall cohort. There was significant practice-level variation in inappropriate use (range 0% to 71.8%; median 10.1%; interquartile range 6.4%) for practices; adjusted MRR was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 1.77). Results remained consistent after excluding 21,052 women age ≥65 years (inappropriate aspirin use 15.2%; median practice-level inappropriate aspirin use 13.8%; interquartile range 8.2%; adjusted MRR 1.61 [95% CI: 1.46 to 1.75]) and after excluding patients with diabetes (inappropriate aspirin use 13.9%; median practice-level inappropriate aspirin use 12.4%; interquartile range 7.6%; adjusted MRR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.41 to 1.67]). Conclusions: More than 1 in 10 patients in this national registry were receiving inappropriate aspirin therapy for primary prevention, with significant practice-level variations. Our findings suggest that there are important opportunities to improve evidence-based aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD. © 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Marshall D.F.,Baylor College of Medicine | Strutt A.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Williams A.E.,Baylor College of Medicine | Simpson R.K.,Methodist Hospital Neurological Institute | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2012

Background and purpose: Despite common occurrences of verbal fluency declines following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), alternating fluency measures using cued and uncued paradigms have not been evaluated. Methods: Twenty-three STN-DBS patients were compared with 20 non-surgical PD patients on a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, including cued and uncued intradimensional (phonemic/phonemic and semantic/semantic) and extradimensional (phonemic/semantic) alternating fluency measures at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Results: STN-DBS patients demonstrated a greater decline on the cued phonemic/phonemic fluency and the uncued phonemic/semantic fluency tasks compared to the PD patients. For STN-DBS patients, verbal learning and information processing speed accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in declines in alternating phonemic/phonemic and phonemic/semantic fluency scores, respectively, whilst only naming was related to uncued phonemic/semantic performance for the PD patients. Both groups were aided by cueing for the extradimensional task at baseline and follow-up, and the PD patients were also aided by cueing for the phonemic/phonemic task on follow-up. Conclusions: These findings suggest that changes in alternating fluency are not related to disease progression alone as STN-DBS patients demonstrated greater declines over time than the PD patients, and this change was related to declines in information processing speed. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.


Romesser J.,Mental Health | Romesser J.,University of Utah | Booth J.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | Booth J.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to describe the pain experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with and without a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who present to polytrauma clinics for evaluation and management. We sought to evaluate the relationship between a veteran's history of mTBI and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on axial pain, head/headache pain, and pain interference. We performed retrospective chart reviews of 529 Iraq/Afghanistan veterans referred for evaluation at two Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Problems with head/headache, low back, and neck pain were frequently endorsed. Subjective pain interference was reported in 21% of patients without a history of mTBI, 31.9% of patients with a history of mTBI with disorientation only, and 36.1% of patients with a history of mTBI with loss of consciousness. Statistically significant differences existed between the mTBI groups on PTS symptom endorsement, and PTS was predictive of pain experience and interference. A history of mTBI with loss of consciousness predicted head/headache pain, but otherwise did not predict pain or pain interference. PTS was strongly related to the pain experience. Pain is common in polytrauma patients. PTS severity is strongly associated with both pain report and pain interference, with head/headache pain showing a unique association with a history of mTBI. Implications for evaluation and management of pain in this complex population are discussed.


Gonzalez-Fuentes A.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Green D.M.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center | Green D.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Rossen R.D.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2010

Intra-articular hyaluronic acid has been used in treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Though its effect on pain has been well studied, it is not clear how it affects the articular cartilage. This is a preliminary study to evaluate the kinetics of urinary collagen type-II C-telopeptide (CTX-II) as a biomarker of collagen breakdown in response to intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Intra-articular injections of hyaluronan were administered to ten patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Urine collection for urinary CTX-II was obtained at baseline, before each injection and once every other week for a total of 6 months. Urine CTX-II was measured using a CartiLaps© ELISA kit. There was a statistically significant increase (p=0.0136) in CTX-II a week after the third intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (6,216 ng/mmol±4,428) compared with baseline (2,233 ng/mmol±1,220). This increase in CTX-II was sustained throughout the entire 6 months follow-up period (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.015). This is the first study of changes in an osteoarthritis biomarker after intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Contrary to our initial hypothesis that CTX-II levels should decrease after intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections, we found a significant increase in urinary CTX-II levels that was sustained throughout the study. These observations suggest that intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections may accelerate cartilage breakdown in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. The responsible mechanisms are unknown and warrant further study. © Clinical Rheumatology 2010.


White D.L.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center | White D.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Kanwal F.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center | Kanwal F.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been implicated as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a systematic review of epidemiology studies to confirm the association between these disorders.Methods:We searched PubMed for original reports published from January 1992 to December 2011 that evaluated the association between NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cryptogenic cirrhosis presumed to be NASH-related, and the risk of HCC. Studies were categorized as offering potential direct evidence (eg, cohort studies) or indirect evidence (eg, case-control, cross-sectional, or case-series studies) for an association. We analyzed data from a total of 17 cohort studies (3 population based, 9 clinic based [6 limited to patients with cirrhosis], and 5 natural history), 18 case-control and cross-sectional studies, and 26 case series.Results:NAFLD or NASH cohorts with few or no cases of cirrhosis cases had a minimal risk for HCC (cumulative HCC mortality of 0%-3% for study periods up to 20 y). Cohorts with NASH and cirrhosis had a consistently higher risk (cumulative incidence ranging from 2.4% over 7 y to 12.8% over 3 y). However, the risk for HCC was substantially lower in these cohorts than for cohorts with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis. Factors that increased risk among cohorts with NASH and cirrhosis could not be determined, because most studies were not sufficiently powered for multivariate analysis.Conclusions:This systematic review shows that despite several limitations, there is epidemiologic evidence to support an association between NAFLD or NASH and an increased risk of HCC; risk seems to be limited to individuals with cirrhosis. © 2012 AGA Institute.


Lu J.-M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Nurko J.,Baylor College of Medicine | Weakley S.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Jiang J.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2010

Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, is known as chaparral or greasewood in the United States and as gobernadora or hediondilla in Mexico. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of the creosote bush, has been shown to have promising applications in the treatment of multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and cancers. Creosote bush is a promising agent of North American herbal medicine, and it has extensive pharmacological effects and specific mechanisms of actions. This review provides an update of recent in vitro and in vivo research about NDGA and describes experimental studies using NDGA as antioxidant. Also, potential medical uses based on the effects of NDGA on the cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems; cancer; tissue engineering; as well as pharmacokinetics and toxicity are discussed. © Med Sci Monit, 2010.


Siddiq D.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Darouiche R.O.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center
Nature Reviews Urology | Year: 2012

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common health-care-associated infection worldwide. Although not all cases of bacteriuria result in clinical infection, several hundred thousand episodes of CAUTI occur each year in the USA alone. The milieu in which the catheter is placed is highly conducive to bacterial colonization, biofilm formation on the catheter surface, and inevitable catheter-associated bacteriuria. A multitude of novel methods of CAUTI prevention have been described, including established approaches that are routinely recommended, such as the use of a secured, closed, silicone urinary catheter drainage system that mimics normal voiding, and newer strategies focusing on biocompatible catheter materials that cause minimal host inflammatory response and retard biofilm formation. Much recent research has focused on modification of the catheter surface by either coating or impregnation with antimicrobials or antiseptics. However, clinical trials that analyse cost-effectiveness and rates of antimicrobial resistance are awaited. More recently, innovative use of iontophoresis, vibroacoustic stimulation, bacterial interference and bacteriophage cocktails has been reported. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Aslam F.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center | Aslam F.,Baylor College of Medicine | Ng B.,Baylor College of Medicine
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2010

Joint pains and swellings are routine complaints in rheumatology clinics. Infectious diseases may mimic common rheumatic conditions and thus need to be ruled out before initiating any immunosuppressive treatment. Mycobacterium marinum is an organism that can present with a typical arthritis picture. A 60-year-old gentleman with a complicated medical history presented with a right wrist swelling which was initially managed as a case of remitting seronegative arthritis. He eventually required tenolysis and the biopsy showed M. marinum. On inquiry, he was found to be an avid fisherman. This report discusses typical diagnostic pitfalls, literature review on the reported cases and treatment strategies. The most important point is to ask for occupational and hobby history in such cases. © Clinical Rheumatology 2010.


Basra S.S.,Baylor College of Medicine | Loyalka P.,Baylor College of Medicine | Kar B.,Baylor College of Medicine | Kar B.,Michael bakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center
Current Opinion in Cardiology | Year: 2011

Purpose of review: Percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVADs) are being increasingly used in patients with cardiogenic shock. They offer a means of instituting rapid and adequate cardiac support in patients with cardiogenic shock unresponsive to inotropes/vasopressors and intraaortic balloon pumps (IABPs). However, there is considerable debate on the appropriate use of these devices given the difficulty of conducting randomized trials in patients with cardiogenic shock, lack of clear guidelines on indications, device selection, and cost-effective care of patients implanted with these devices. Recent findings: Several centers have recently reported data on the use of these devices for cardiogenic shock in a variety of different settings, including myocardial ischemia and its complications, high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention, myocarditis, and refractory arrhythmias. Recent randomized trials have compared the use of IABP with different pVADs evaluating hemodynamic outcomes as well as short-term mortality. Summary: We review the current evidence on the use of pVADs (Tandemheart pVAD, Impella, percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), their indications, relative merits, and adverse effects, and discuss the current approach to the appropriate use of pVADs in patients with cardiogenic shock. We also propose an algorithm for device selection tailored to each patient's needs based on severity of cardiogenic shock, amount of support needed, and the overall clinical scenario. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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