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Houston, TX, United States

Carabello B.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Carabello B.A.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center
Heart Failure Clinics | Year: 2012

Structural cardiac volume overload comprises a group of heterogeneous diseases, each creating a nearly unique set of loading conditions on the left ventricle and/or right ventricle. In turn, the heart responds to each with unique patterns of remodeling, leading to both adaptive and maladaptive consequences. An understanding of these different patterns of hypertrophy and/or remodeling should be useful in developing strategies for the timing and correction of cardiac volume overload. © 2012.

Price R.B.,University of Pittsburgh | Mathew S.J.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | Mathew S.J.,Baylor College of Medicine
CNS Drugs | Year: 2015

Ketamine, a widely used anesthetic agent, is currently being investigated as a novel therapeutic for depression and suicidality. Ketamine has garnered substantial attention from researchers, clinicians, media outlets, and patients alike, but numerous questions remain. One of the compelling features of ketamine is the rapidity of its antidepressant effects, which peak just 24 h after infusion, setting it apart from other existing treatments. Ketamine's rapid time course has inspired research efforts to explore its potential as a life-saving therapy for patients at imminent risk of suicide. In this article, we review current evidence supporting the rapid effects of ketamine on suicidal ideation in the context of unipolar and bipolar depression. We then discuss several future directions that are necessary before ketamine can be considered a viable treatment option for suicidality in clinical settings. These include: testing for a specific anti-suicidal effect - separate from overall antidepressant effects - to ascertain whether ketamine might hold promise for a broader class of suicidal patients; ensuring that acute benefits of ketamine can be prolonged over a clinically meaningful timeframe; and developing a better understanding of the mechanisms by which ketamine might reduce suicide risk. Such efforts will enable the field to more accurately assess the potential of ketamine, as well as its limitations, allowing for appropriate placement within the context of comprehensive clinical care for suicide prevention. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Ng B.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | Ng B.,Baylor College of Medicine | Chu A.,University of Houston-Victoria
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study is to explore patient factors associated with differences in methotrexate (MTX) dosing and to compare patient factors and MTX-dosing patterns between those who remained on MTX monotherapy and those who were switched or had additional therapy. A retrospective cohort of 7,017 patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was identified in the United States Department of Veterans Affairs administrative databases between 1 October 1999 and 30 September 2009. Regression analyses were used to study the association of MTX start and maximum dose attained with various patient characteristics and compare differences between groups who had therapeutic change (having switched to or added another anti-rheumatic agent or having steroids increased by 2.5 mg of prednisone or equivalent) with those remaining on MTX monotherapy. Abnormal serum creatinine (>1.5 mg/dL) was associated lower start and peak MTX doses (p<0.01). Older RA patients were less likely to attain peak MTX dose of 15 mg or more (p<0.01). Males and patients 75 and older (compared with <45) had lower risk of therapeutic change (hazard ratio, [HR] 0.80, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.90, and HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.42-0.36-0.50, respectively). Patients who attained higher peak MTX dose had lower risk of therapeutic change compared with those dosed at less than 15 mg/week (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.92 for 15 to <20 and HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.72-0.86 for 20 or more). InjectableMTX use conferred lower risk of therapeutic change (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.78). Two thirds did not attain a maximum MTX dose of 20 mg/week or more before therapeutic change occurred. Older age and renal insufficiency were barriers to the use of higher MTX maximum dosages. Use of injectable MTX and higher maximum MTX dose were independently associated with higher likelihood to remain on MTX monotherapy. Further studies are needed to explore targeted interventions thatmay optimize MTX dosing to improve success rates of MTX monotherapy. © 2013 Clinical Rheumatology.

Shorter D.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | Domingo C.B.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | Kosten T.R.,Baylor College of Medicine
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs | Year: 2015

Introduction: Cocaine use is a global public health concern of significant magnitude, negatively impacting both the individual as well as larger society. Despite numerous trials, the discovery of an effective medication for treatment of cocaine use disorder remains elusive.Areas covered: This article reviews the emerging pharmacotherapies for treatment of cocaine use disorder, focusing on those medications that are currently in Phase II or III human clinical trials. Articles reviewed were obtained through searches of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Clinicaltrials.gov and the Pharmaprojects database.Expert opinion: Research into cocaine pharmacotherapy must continue to show innovation. Given that medications targeting single neurotransmitter systems have demonstrated little efficacy in treatment of cocaine use disorder, the recent focus on pharmacotherapeutic agents with multiple neurobiochemical targets represents an exciting shift in trial design and approach. Additionally, consideration of pharmacogenetics may be helpful in identification of subpopulations of cocaine-dependent individuals who may preferentially respond to medications. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Corrales-Medina V.F.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Corrales-Medina V.F.,University of Ottawa | Musher D.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Musher D.M.,Michael bakey Va Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2012

Background-Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) affects > 5 million adults each year in the United States. Although incident cardiac complications occur in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, their incidence, timing, risk factors, and associations with short-term mortality are not well understood. Methods and Results-A total of 1343 inpatients and 944 outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia were followed up prospectively for 30 days after presentation. Incident cardiac complications (new or worsening heart failure, new or worsening arrhythmias, or myocardial infarction) were diagnosed in 358 inpatients (26.7%) and 20 outpatients (2.1%). Although most events (89.1% in inpatients, 75% in outpatients) were diagnosed within the first week, more than half of them were recognized in the first 24 hours. Factors associated with their diagnosis included older age (odds ratio [OR]=1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.04), nursing home residence (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), history of heart failure (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 3.0-6.3), prior cardiac arrhythmias (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7), previously diagnosed coronary artery disease (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.04-2.0), arterial hypertension (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), respiratory rate ≥ 30 breaths per minute (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), blood pH < 7.35 (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-5.7), blood urea nitrogen ≥ 30 mg/dL (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2), serum sodium < 130 mmol/L (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.1), hematocrit ≥ 30% (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2), pleural effusion on presenting chest x-ray (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), and inpatient care (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.8-8.3). Incident cardiac complications were associated with increased risk of death at 30 days after adjustment for baseline Pneumonia Severity Index score (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.04-2.5). Conclusions-Incident cardiac complications are common in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and are associated with increased short-term mortality. Older age, nursing home residence, preexisting cardiovascular disease, and pneumonia severity are associated with their occurrence. Further studies are required to test risk stratification and prevention and treatment strategies for cardiac complications in this population. Copyright © s 2012 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.

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