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Maciejewski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Dimitrov D.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Seeliger M.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte | Raetz S.,Astrophysikalisches Institute und Universitats Sternwarte | And 42 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2013

Aims. The transiting planet WASP-12 b was identified as a potential target for transit-timing studies because a departure from a linear ephemeris has been reported in the literature. Such deviations could be caused by an additional planet in the system. We attempt to confirm the claimed variations in transit timing and interpret their origin. Methods. We organised a multi-site campaign to observe transits by WASP-12 b in three observing seasons, using 0.5-2.6-metre telescopes. Results. We obtained 61 transit light curves, many of them with sub-millimagnitude precision. The simultaneous analysis of the best-quality datasets allowed us to obtain refined system parameters, which agree with values reported in previous studies. The residuals versus a linear ephemeris reveal a possible periodic signal that may be approximated by a sinusoid with an amplitude of 0.00068 ± 0.00013 d and period of 500 ± 20 orbital periods of WASP-12 b. The joint analysis of timing data and published radial velocity measurements results in a two-planet model that explains observations better than do single-planet scenarios. We hypothesise that WASP-12 b might not be the only planet in the system, and there might be the additional 0.1 M Jup body on a 3.6-d eccentric orbit. A dynamical analysis indicates that the proposed two-planet system is stable on long timescales. © 2013 ESO.

Maciejewski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Niedzielski A.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Wolszczan A.,Pennsylvania State University | Nowak G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | And 31 more authors.
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2013

There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The RV data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Villforth C.,University of Turku | Nilsson K.,University of Turku | Heidt J.,ZAH | Takalo L.O.,University of Turku | And 45 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

OJ 287 is a BL Lac object at redshift.z= 0.306 that has shown double-peaked bursts at regular intervals of ∼12 yr during the last ∼40 yr. We analyse optical photopolarimetric monitoring data from 2005 to 2009, during which the latest double-peaked outburst occurred. The aim of this study is twofold: firstly, we aim to analyse variability patterns and statistical properties of the optical polarization light curve. We find a strong preferred position angle in optical polarization. The preferred position angle can be explained by separating the jet emission into two components: an optical polarization core and chaotic jet emission. The optical polarization core is stable on time-scales of years and can be explained as emission from an underlying quiescent jet component. The chaotic jet emission sometimes exhibits a circular movement in the Stokes plane. We find six such events, all on the time-scales of 10-20 d. We interpret these events as a shock front moving forwards and backwards in the jet, swiping through a helical magnetic field. Secondly, we use our data to assess different binary black hole models proposed to explain the regularly appearing double-peaked bursts in OJ 287. We compose a list of requirements a model has to fulfil to explain the mysterious behaviour observed in OJ 287. The list includes not only characteristics of the light curve but also other properties of OJ 287, such as the black hole mass and restrictions on accretion flow properties. We rate all existing models using this list and conclude that none of the models is able to explain all observations. We discuss possible new explanations and propose a new approach to understanding OJ 287. We suggest that both the double-peaked bursts and the evolution of the optical polarization position angle could be explained as a sign of resonant accretion of magnetic field lines, a 'magnetic breathing' of the disc. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

Raetz S.,Universitats Sternwarte | Raetz S.,European Space Agency | Maciejewski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Ginski C.,Universitats Sternwarte | And 23 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Homogeneous observations and careful analysis of transit light curves can lead to the identification of transit timing variations (TTVs). TrES-2 is one of few exoplanets, which offer the matchless possibility to combine long-term ground-based observations with continuous satellite data. Our research aimed at the search for TTVs that would be indicative of perturbations from additional bodies in the system. We also wanted to refine the system parameters and the orbital elements. We obtained 44 ground-based light curves of 31 individual transit events of TrES-2. Eight 0.2-2.2-m telescopes located at six observatories in Germany, Poland and Spain were used. In addition, we analysed 18 quarters (Q0-Q17) of observational data from NASA's space telescope Kepler including 435 individual transit events and 11 publicly available ground-based light curves. Assuming different limb darkening (LD) laws we performed an analysis for all light curves and redetermined the parameters of the system. We also carried out a joint analysis of the ground- and space-based data. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed a very precise redetermination of the transit ephemeris. For a total of 490 transit light curves of TrES-2, the time of transit mid-point was determined. The transit times support neither variations on long time-scale nor on short time-scales. The nearly continuous observations of Kepler show no statistically significant increase or decrease in the orbital inclination i and the transit duration D. Only the transit depth shows a slight increase which could be an indication of an increasing stellar activity. In general, system parameters obtained by us were found to be in agreement with previous studies but are the most precise values to date. © 2014 The Authors.

MacIejewski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Dimitrov D.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Mancini L.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Mancini L.,National institute for astrophysics | And 21 more authors.
Acta Astronomica | Year: 2016

We present new transit light curves for planets in six extrasolar planetary systems. They were acquired with 0.4-2.2 m telescopes located in west Asia, Europe, and South America. When combined with literature data, they allowed us to redetermine system parameters in a homogeneous way. Our results for individual systems are in agreement with values reported in previous studies. We refined transit ephemerides and reduced uncertainties of orbital periods by a factor between 2 and 7. No sign of any variations in transit times was detected for the planets studied.

MacIejewski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Dimitrov D.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Fernandez M.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Iaa Csic | Sota A.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Iaa Csic | And 15 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2016

Aims. Most hot Jupiters are expected to spiral in toward their host stars because the angular momentum of the orbital motion is transferred to the stellar spin. Their orbits can also precess as a result of planet-star interactions. Calculations show that both effects might be detected for the very-hot exoplanet WASP-12 b using the method of precise transit-timing over a time span of about 10 yr. Methods. We acquired new precise light curves for 29 transits of WASP-12 b, spannning four observing seasons from November 2012 to February 2016. New mid-transit times, together with those from the literature, were used to refine the transit ephemeris and analyze the timing residuals. Results. We find that the transit times of WASP-12 b do not follow a linear ephemeris with a 5σ confidence level. They may be approximated with a quadratic ephemeris that gives a change rate in the orbital period of (-2.56 ± 0.40) × 10-2 s yr-1. The tidal quality parameter of the host star was found to be equal to 2.5 × 105, which is similar to theoretical predictions for Sun-like stars. We also considered a model in which the observed timing residuals are interpreted as a result of the apsidal precession. We find, however, that this model is statistically less probable than the orbital decay. © 2016 ESO.

Maciejewski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Ohlert J.,Michael Adrian Observatorium | Ohlert J.,Mittelhessen University of Applied Sciences | Dimitrov D.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | And 9 more authors.
Acta Astronomica | Year: 2014

We present thirteen new transit light curves for the WASP-1b exoplanet. Observations were acquired with 0.5 m-1.2 m telescopes between 2007 and 2013. Our homogeneous analysis, which also includes the literature data, results in determining precise system parameters. New values are in agreement with those reported in previous studies. Transit times follow a linear ephemeris with no sign of any transit time variations. This finding is in line with the paradigm that Jupiter-like planets on tight orbits are devoid of close planetary companions.

Maciejewski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Fernandez M.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Iaa Csic | Aceituno F.J.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Iaa Csic | Ohlert J.,Michael Adrian Observatorium | And 13 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2015

Aims. The transiting hot-Jupiter planet Qatar-1 b exhibits variations in transit times that could be perturbative. A hot Jupiter with a planetary companion on a nearby orbit would constitute an unprecedented planetary configuration, which is important for theories of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We performed a photometric follow-up campaign to confirm or refute transit timing variations. Methods. We extend the baseline of transit observations by acquiring 18 new transit light curves acquired with 0.6-2.0 m telescopes. These photometric time series, together with data available in the literature, were analyzed in a homogenous way to derive reliable transit parameters and their uncertainties. Results. We show that the dataset of transit times is consistent with a linear ephemeris leaving no hint of any periodic variations with a range of 1 min. We find no compelling evidence of a close-in planetary companion to Qatar-1 b. This finding is in line with a paradigm that hot Jupiters are not components of compact multiplanetary systems. Based on dynamical simulations, we place tighter constraints on the mass of any fictitious nearby planet in the system. Furthermore, new transit light curves allowed us to redetermine system parameters with better precision than reported in previous studies. Our values generally agree with previous determinations. © ESO 2015.

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