Oxford, OH, United States

Miami University Ohio

Oxford, OH, United States

Miami University is a coeducational public research university located in Oxford, Ohio, United States. Founded in 1809, although classes were not held until 1824, it is the 10th oldest public university in the United States and the second oldest university in Ohio, founded five years after Ohio University. In its 2015 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked the university 75th among national universities, in its Top 30 public schools, and second for best undergraduate teaching at national universities, behind only Princeton University. Miami University is considered one of the original eight "Public Ivy" schools that provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.Miami's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Miami RedHawks. They compete in the Mid-American Conference in all varsity sports except ice hockey, which competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference. Wikipedia.

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Blitz D.M.,University of Pennsylvania | Blitz D.M.,Miami University Ohio | Nusbaum M.P.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Bidirectional communication (i.e., feedforward and feedback pathways) between functional levels is common in neural systems, but in most systems little is known regarding the function and modifiability of the feedback pathway. We are exploring this issue in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric nervous system by examining bidirectional communication between projection neurons and their target central pattern generator (CPG) circuit neurons. Specifically, we addressed the question of whether the peptidergic postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons trigger a specific gastric mill (chewing) motor pattern in the stomatogastric ganglion solely by activating projection neurons, or by additionally altering the strength of CPG feedback to these projection neurons. The POC-triggered gastric mill rhythm is shaped by feedback inhibition onto projection neurons from a CPG neuron. Here, we establish that POC stimulation triggers a long-lasting enhancement of feedback-mediated IPSC/Ps in the projection neurons, which persists for the same duration as POC-gastric mill rhythms. This strengthened CPG feedback appears to result from presynaptic modulation, because it also occurs in other projection neurons whose activity does not change after POC stimulation. To determine the function of this strengthened feedback synapse, we compared the influence of dynamic-clamp-injected feedback IPSPs of pre-and post-POC amplitude into a pivotal projection neuron after POC stimulation. Only the post-POC amplitude IPSPs elicited the POC-triggered activity pattern in this projection neuron and enabled full expression of the POC-gastric mill rhythm. Thus, the strength of CPG feedback to projection neurons is modifiable and can be instrumental to motor pattern selection. © 2012 the authors.

Background: Intercontinental migratory waterfowl are the primary vectors for dispersion of H5N1 viruses and have been implicated in several zoonotic epidemics and pandemics. Recent investigations have established that with a single mutation, the virus gains the ability to transmit between humans. Consequently, there is a heightened urgency to identify innovative approaches to proactively mitigate emergent epidemics. Accordingly, a novel methodology combining temporo-geospatial epidemiology and phylogeographic analysis of viral strains is proposed to identify critical epicenters and epidemic pathways along with high risk candidate regions for increased surveillance. Results: Epidemiological analysis was used to identify 91,245 candidate global infection transmission pathways between 22 high risk waterfowl species. Dominant infection pathways (25,625 and 54,500 in summering and wintering zones) were identified through annotation using phylogeographical data computed from the phylogram of 2417 H5N1 HA isolates (from GISAID EpiFlu database). Annotation of infection pathways in turn delineated 23 influential clades out of 130 clades in the phylogram. Conclusions: The phylogeographic analyses provides strong cross-validation of epidemic pathways and identifies the dominant pathways for use in other epidemiological and prophylactic studies. The temporo-geospatial characteristics of infection transmission provides corroborating, but novel evidence for rapid genesis of H5N1 lineages in S.E. Asia. The proposed method pinpoints several regions, particularly in the southern hemisphere, as candidates for increased surveillance. © 2014 Rao; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Nusbaum M.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Blitz D.M.,Miami University Ohio
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Neuropeptides provide functional flexibility to microcircuits, their inputs and effectors by modulating presynaptic and postsynaptic properties and intrinsic currents. Recent studies have relied less on applied neuropeptide and more on their neural release. In rhythmically active microcircuits (central pattern generators, CPGs), recent studies show that neuropeptide modulation can enable particular activity patterns by organizing specific circuit motifs. Neuropeptides can also modify microcircuit output indirectly, by modulating circuit inputs. Recently elucidated consequences of neuropeptide modulation include changes in motor patterns and behavior, stabilization of rhythmic motor patterns and changes in CPG sensitivity to sensory input. One aspect of neuropeptide modulation that remains enigmatic is the presence of multiple peptide family members in the same nervous system and even the same neurons. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

McConnell M.J.,University of Seville | Actis L.,Miami University Ohio | Pachon J.,University of Seville
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2013

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a medically important pathogen because of the increasing number of infections produced by this organism over the preceding three decades and the global spread of strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. In spite of its clinical relevance, until recently, there have been few studies addressing the factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of this organism. The availability of complete genome sequences, molecular tools for manipulating the bacterial genome, and animal models of infection have begun to facilitate the identification of factors that play a role in A. baumannii persistence and infection. This review summarizes the characteristics of A. baumannii that contribute to its pathogenesis, with a focus on motility, adherence, biofilm formation, and iron acquisition. In addition, the virulence factors that have been identified to date, which include the outer membrane protein OmpA, phospholipases, membrane polysaccharide components, penicillin-binding proteins, and outer membrane vesicles, are discussed. Animal models systems that have been developed during the last 15 years for the study of A. baumannii infection are overviewed, and the recent use of these models to identify factors involved in virulence and pathogenesis is highlighted. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

Stiles W.B.,Miami University Ohio
Psychotherapy Research | Year: 2011

The assimilation model is a theory of psychological change that depicts the self as a community of internal voices, composed of traces of the person's experiences. The model suggests that disconnection of certain voices from the community underlies many forms of psychopathology and psychological distress. Such problematic voices may be assimilated through psychotherapeutic dialogue by building meaning bridges. Meaning bridges are signs (e.g., words, images, gestures, narratives) that have similar meaning to author and addressee, that is, to the signs' producer and recipient, which may be different people or interacting internal voices. Building meaning bridges is thus a process of coming to terms with problematic voices, which reduces distress and gives access to experiential resources within the self. This article describes and illustrates meaning bridges, voices, signs, and associated concepts as elaborated in a program of research on the assimilation model. © 2011 Society for Psychotherapy Research.

We conducted four studies to examine the relationship between over-exercise and suicidality. Study 1 investigated whether over-exercise predicted suicidal behavior after controlling for other eating disorder behaviors in a patient sample of 204 women (144 with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Bulimia Nervosa [BN]). Study 2 tested the prospective association between over-exercise and acquired capability for suicide (ACS) in a sample of 171 college students followed for 3-4 weeks. Study 3 investigated whether pain insensitivity accounted for the relationship between over-exercise and ACS in a new sample of 467 college students. Study 4 tested whether ACS accounted for the relationship between over-exercise and suicidal behavior in a sample of 512 college students. In Study 1, after controlling for key covariates, over-exercise was the only disordered eating variable that maintained a significant relationship with suicidal behavior. In Study 2, Time 1 over-exercise was the only disordered eating behavior that was associated with Time 2 ACS. In Study 3, pain insensitivity accounted for the relationship between over-exercise and ACS. In Study 4, ACS accounted for the relationship between over-exercise and suicidal behavior. Over-exercise appears to be associated with suicidal behavior, an association accounted for by pain insensitivity and the acquired capability for suicide; notably, this association was found across a series of four studies with different populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rypstra A.L.,Miami University Ohio
Biology letters | Year: 2013

The role of predators in food webs extends beyond their ability to kill and consume prey. Such trait-mediated effects occur when signals of the predator influence the behaviour of other animals. Because all spiders are silk-producing carnivores, we hypothesized that silk alone would signal other arthropods and enhance non-lethal effects of spiders. We quantified the herbivory inflicted by two beetle species on green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the presence of silkworm silk and spider silk along with no silk controls. Single leaflets were treated and enclosed with herbivores in the laboratory and field. Another set of leaflets were treated and left to experience natural herbivory in the field. Entire plants in the field were treated with silk and enclosed with herbivores or left exposed to herbivory. In all cases, the lowest levels of herbivory occurred with spider silk treatments and, in general, silkworm silk produced intermediate levels of leaf damage. These results suggest that silk may be a mechanism for the trait-mediated impacts of spiders and that it might contribute to integrated pest management programmes.

Jeff Smith H.,Miami University Ohio | Dinev T.,Florida Atlantic University | Xu H.,Pennsylvania State University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011

To date, many important threads of information privacy research have developed, but these threads have not been woven together into a cohesive fabric. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of privacy-related research in order to enable a more cohesive treatment. With a sample of 320 privacy articles and 128 books and book sections, we classify previous literature in two ways: (1) using an ethics-based nomenclature of normative, purely descriptive, and empirically descriptive, and (2) based on their level of analysis: individual, group, organizational, and societal. Based upon our analyses via these two classification approaches, we identify three major areas in which previous research contributions reside: the conceptualization of information privacy, the relationship between information privacy and other constructs, and the contextual nature of these relationships. As we consider these major areas, we draw three overarching conclusions. First, there are many theoretical developments in the body of normative and purely descriptive studies that have not been addressed in empirical research on privacy. Rigorous studies that either trace processes associated with, or test implied assertions from, these value-laden arguments could add great value. Second, some of the levels of analysis have received less attention in certain contexts than have others in the research to date. Future empirical studies-both positivist and interpretive-could profitably be targeted to these under-researched levels of analysis. Third, positivist empirical studies will add the greatest value if they focus on antecedents to privacy concerns and on actual outcomes. In that light, we recommend that researchers be alert to an overarching macro model that we term APCO (Antecedents → Privacy Concerns → Outcomes).

Hartley C.S.,Miami University Ohio
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2016

Conspectus In nature, the folding of oligomers and polymers is used to generate complex three-dimensional structures, yielding macromolecules with diverse functions in catalysis, recognition, transport, and charge- and energy-transfer. Over the past 20-30 years, chemists have sought to replicate this strategy by developing new foldamers: oligomers that fold into well-defined secondary structures in solution. A wide array of abiotic foldamers have been developed, ranging from non-natural peptides to aromatics.The ortho-phenylenes represent a recent addition to the family of aromatic foldamers. Despite their structural simplicity (chains of benzenes connected at the ortho positions), it was not until 2010 that systematic studies of o-phenylenes showed that they reliably fold into helices in solution (and in the solid state). This conformational behavior is of fundamental interest: o-Arylene and o-heteroarylene structures are found embedded within many other systems, part of an emerging interest in sterically congested polyphenylenes. Further, o-phenylenes are increasingly straightforward to synthesize because of continuing developments in arene-arene coupling, the Asao-Yamamoto benzannulation, and benzyne polymerization. In this Account, we discuss the folding of o-phenylenes with emphasis on features that make them unique among aromatic foldamers. Interconversion between their different backbone conformers is slow on the NMR time scale around room temperature. The 1H NMR spectra of oligomers can therefore be deconvoluted to give sets of chemical shifts for different folding states. The chemical shifts are both highly sensitive to conformation and readily predicted using ab initio methods, affording critical information about the conformational distribution.The picture that emerges is that o-phenylenes fold into helices with offset stacking between every third repeat unit. In general, misfolding occurs primarily at the oligomer termini (i.e., "frayed ends"). Because of their structural simplicity, the folding can be described by straightforward models. The overall population can be divided into two enantiomeric pools, with racemization and misfolding as two distinct processes. Examination of substituent effects on folding reveals that the determinant of the relative stability of different conformers is (offset) aromatic stacking interactions parallel to the helical axis. That is, the folding of o-phenylenes is analogous to that of α-helices, with aromatic stacking in place of hydrogen bonding. The folding propensity can be tuned using well-known substituent effects on aromatic stacking, with moderate electron-withdrawing substituents giving nearly perfect folding. The combination of a simple folding mechanism and readily characterized conformational populations makes o-phenylenes attractive structural motifs for incorporation into more-complex architectures, an important part of the next phase of foldamer research. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Bowblis J.R.,Miami University Ohio
Health Economics | Year: 2011

Ownership conversions and closures in the nursing home literature have largely been treated as separate issues. This paper studies the predictors of nursing home ownership conversions and closure in a common framework after the implementation of the Prospective Payment System in Medicare skilled nursing facilities. The switch in reimbursement regimes impacted facilities with greater exposure to Medicare and lower efficiency. Facilities that faced greater financial difficulty were more likely to be involved in an ownership conversion or closure, but after controlling for other factors the effect of exposure to Medicare is small. Further, factors that predict conversion were found to vary between not-for-profit and for-profit facilities, while factors that predict closure were the same for each ownership type. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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