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Setia M.S.,MGM Institute of Health Sciences
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2016

Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design. © 2016 Indian Journal of Dermatology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.


Setia M.,MGM Institute of Health Sciences
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2016

Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive-particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases-selection bias and recall bias.


Rajan P.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences | Bellare B.,MGM Institute of Health Sciences
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Context: It is now known that resident doctors registered for postgraduate studies are prone to work related stress and eventual burnout. Though stress can happen in any profession, reduced performance of resident doctors due to vocational stress could cause an increase in medical errors and thus affect the quality of life of the patients. Resident doctors at a Municipal hospital in India form a unique population as number of stresses they undergo are many and varied. Aims: To study the prevalence of work-related stress and its anticipated solutions among the resident doctors registered for postgraduate studies in clinical subjects at a tertiary Municipal hospital. Settings and Design: A stratified sampling cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Inpatient, Outpatient, and Intensive Care Units at a tertiary Municipal hospital in Mumbai, India. Material and Methods: Data collection was done using a validated 20-point questionnaire to assess the factors causing stress and their anticipated solutions. Statistical Analysis: Simple percentage analysis of stress questionnaire. Results: 71 resident doctors completed the survey. The major stressors in this cohort were inadequate hostel/quarter facilities (92.1%), and the need to perform extra duties (80.0%). Also, non-conducive environment for clinical training and studies (81.7%), inadequate study (78.9%) and break (81.2%), threat from deadly infections (74.6%), and overburdening with work (69.0%) were the other major stress causing factors. The perceived stress busters were good music (40.8%) and family and friends (40.8%). Eighty-seven percent of the respondents perceived regular physical exercise to be an effective mode of stress management and 83.8% expressed their need to have a simple therapeutic gymnasium established within the campus with a qualified trainer. Conclusions: There is a high level of work related stress among the resident doctors registered for postgraduate clinical studies at a tertiary Municipal hospital in Mumbai. One of the perceived stress busters is regular physical exercise that is structured and under supervision.


Padalkar P.,MGM Institute of Health Sciences | Pereira B.P.,National University Hospital Singapore | Kathare A.,Deccan Hospital | Sun K.K.,National University Hospital Singapore | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics | Year: 2012

Background: The treatment algorithm for sacral fracture associated with vertical shear pelvic fracture has not emerged. Our aim was to study a new approach of fixation for comminuted and vertically unstable fracture pattern with spinopelvic dissociation to overcome inconsistent outcome and avoid complications associated with fixations. We propose fixation with well-contoured thick reconstruction plate spreading across sacrum from one iliac bone to another with fixation points in iliac wing, sacral ala and sacral pedicle on either side. Present biomechanical study tests the four fixation pattern to compare their stiffness to vertical compressive forces. Materials and Methods: Dissection was performed on human cadavers through posterior midline paraspinal approach elevating erector spinae from insertion with two flaps. Feasibility of surgical exposure and placement of contoured plate for fixation was evaluated. Ten age and sex matched computed tomography scans of pelvis with both hips were obtained. Reconstructions were performed with advantage windows 4.2 (GE Light Speed QX/I, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA). Using the annotation tools, direct digital CT measurement (0.6 mm increments) of three linear parameters was carried out. Readings were recorded at S2 sacral level. Pelvic CT scans were extensively studied for entry point, trajectory and estimated length for screw placement in S2 pedicle, sacral ala and iliac wing. Readings were recorded for desired angulation of screw in iliac wing ala of sacrum and sacral pedicle with respect to midline. The readings were analyzed by the values of mean and standard deviation. Biomechanical efficacy of fixation methods was studied separately on synthetic bone. Four fixation patterns given below were tested to compare their stiffness to vertical compressive forces: 1) Single S1 iliosacral screw (7.5 mm cancellous screw), 2) Two S1 and S2 iliosacral screws, 3) Isolated trans-iliosacral plate, 4) Trans-iliosacral plate + single S1 iliosacral screw. Statistical Analysis: Mean of desired angulation for inserting screws and percentage of displacement on biomechanical testing was evaluated. Results: Mean angulations for inserting sacral pedicel were 12.3° (SD 2.7°) convergent to midline and divergent of 14 (SD 2.3°) for sacral ala screw and 23° (SD 4.9°) for iliac wing screw. All screws needed to be inserted at an angle of 90 to sacral dorsum to avoid violation of root canals. Cross headed displacement across fracture site was measured and plotted against the applied vertical shear load of 300 N in five cycles each for all the four configurations. Also, the force required for cross headed displacement of 2.5 mm and 5 mm was recorded for all configurations. Transmitted load across both ischial tuberosities was measured to resolve unequal distribution of forces. Taking one screw construct (configuration 1) as standard base reference, trans-iliosacral plate construct (configuration 3) showed equal rigidity to standard reference. Two screw construct (configuration 2) was 12% stronger and trans-iliosacral plate (configuration 4) with screw was 9% stronger at 2.5 mm displacing on 300 N force, while it showed 30% and 6%, respectively, at 5 mm cross-headed displacement. Conclusions: Trans-iliosacral plating is feasible anatomically, biomechanically and radiologically for sacral fractures associated with vertical shear pelvic fractures. Low profile of plate reduces the risk of hardware prominence and decreases the need for implant removal. Also, the fixation pattern of plate allows to spare mobile lumbosacral junction which is an important segment for spinal mobility. Biomechanical studies revealed that rigidity offered by plate for cross headed displacement across fracture site is equal to sacroiliac screws and further rigidity of construct can be increased with addition of one more screw. There is need for precountered thicker plate in future.


Setia M.,MGM Institute of Health Sciences
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2016

In a clinical trial, study participants are (usually) divided into two groups. One group is then given the intervention and the other group is not given the intervention (or may be given some existing standard of care). We compare the outcomes in these groups and assess the role of intervention. Some of the trial designs are (1) parallel study design, (2) cross-over design, (3) factorial design, and (4) withdrawal group design. The trials can also be classified according to the stage of the trial (Phase I, II, III, and IV) or the nature of the trial (efficacy vs. effectiveness trials, superiority vs. equivalence trials). Randomization is one of the procedures by which we allocate different interventions to the groups. It ensures that all the included participants have a specified probability of being allocated to either of the groups in the intervention study. If participants and the investigator know about the allocation of the intervention, then it is called an «open trial.» However, many of the trials are not open - they are blinded. Blinding is useful to minimize bias in clinical trials. The researcher should familiarize themselves with the CONSORT statement and the appropriate Clinical Trials Registry of India. © 2016 Indian Journal of Dermatology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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