Galanter J.M.,University of California at San Francisco |
Fernandez-Lopez J.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica |
Gignoux C.R.,University of California at San Francisco |
Barnholtz-Sloan J.,Case Western Reserve University |
And 42 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2012
Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R 2&0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.
PubMed | Laboratory for Equine Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, University of Bonn, University of Teramo and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2016
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen. Genetically related viruses in animals suggest a zoonotic origin of HCV. The closest relative of HCV is found in horses (termed equine hepacivirus [EqHV]). However, low EqHV genetic diversity implies relatively recent acquisition of EqHV by horses, making a derivation of HCV from EqHV unlikely. To unravel the EqHV evolutionary history within equid sister species, we analyzed 829 donkeys and 53 mules sampled in nine European, Asian, African, and American countries by molecular and serologic tools for EqHV infection. Antibodies were found in 278 animals (31.5%), and viral RNA was found in 3 animals (0.3%), all of which were simultaneously seropositive. A low RNA prevalence in spite of high seroprevalence suggests a predominance of acute infection, a possible difference from the mostly chronic hepacivirus infection pattern seen in horses and humans. Limitation of transmission due to short courses of infection may explain the existence of entirely seronegative groups of animals. Donkey and horse EqHV strains were paraphyletic and 97.5 to 98.2% identical in their translated polyprotein sequences, making virus/host cospeciation unlikely. Evolutionary reconstructions supported host switches of EqHV between horses and donkeys without the involvement of adaptive evolution. Global admixture of donkey and horse hepaciviruses was compatible with anthropogenic alterations of EqHV ecology. In summary, our findings do not support EqHV as the origin of the significantly more diversified HCV. Identification of a host system with predominantly acute hepacivirus infection may enable new insights into the chronic infection pattern associated with HCV.The evolutionary origins of the human hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unclear. The closest animal-associated relative of HCV occurs in horses (equine hepacivirus [EqHV]). The low EqHV genetic diversity implies a relatively recent acquisition of EqHV by horses, limiting the time span for potential horse-to-human infections in the past. Horses are genetically related to donkeys, and EqHV may have cospeciated with these host species. Here, we investigated a large panel of donkeys from various countries using serologic and molecular tools. We found EqHV to be globally widespread in donkeys and identify potential differences in EqHV infection patterns, with donkeys potentially showing enhanced EqHV clearance compared to horses. We provide strong evidence against EqHV cospeciation and for its capability to switch hosts among equines. Differential hepacivirus infection patterns in horses and donkeys may enable new insights into the chronic infection pattern associated with HCV.
Lara-Chacon B.,CINVESTAV |
De Leon M.B.,CINVESTAV |
De Leon M.B.,Mexican Social Security Institute IMSS |
Leocadio D.,CINVESTAV |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010
β-dystroglycan (β-DG) is a widely expressed transmembrane protein that plays important roles in connecting the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton, and thereby contributing to plasma membrane integrity and signal transduction. We previously observed nuclear localization of β-DG in cultured cell lines, implying the existence of a nuclear targeting mechanism that directs it to the nucleus instead of the plasma membrane. In this study, we delineate the nuclear import pathway of β-DG, characterizing a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the β-DG cytoplasmic domain, within amino acids 776-782. The NLS either alone or in the context of the whole β-DG protein was able to target the heterologous GFP protein to the nucleus, with site-directed mutagenesis indicating that amino acids R 779 and K780 are critical for NLS functionality. The nuclear transport molecules Importin (Imp)α and Impβ bound with high affinity to the NLS of β-DG and were found to be essential for NLS-dependent nuclear import in an in vitro reconstituted nuclear transport assay; cotransfection experiments confirmed the dependence on Ran for nuclear accumulation. Intriguingly, experiments suggested that tyrosine phosphorylation of β-DG may result in cytoplasmic retention, with Y892 playing a key role. β-DG thus follows a conventional Impα/β-dependent nuclear import pathway, with important implications for its potential function in the nucleus. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Garcia-Vielma C.,Mexican Social Security Institute IMSS |
Davila-Rodriguez M.I.,Mexican Social Security Institute IMSS |
Hernandez-Garza F.,Medical Unit of High Specialty No |
Cerda-Flores R.M.,Autonomous University of Nuevo León |
Cortes-Gutierrez E.I.,Mexican Social Security Institute IMSS
Biotechnic and Histochemistry | Year: 2016
We performed a hospital-based, unmatched case-control study to investigate the association between progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and digital analysis of cell proliferation by silver stained nucleolus organizer region associated proteins (AgNORs). We measured cell proliferation levels in the cervical epithelial cells of 10 women with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), eight with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HG-SIL), 11 with cervical cancer (CC) and eight with no cervical lesions (controls) using the AgNORs technique. Cell proliferation was measured by digital image analysis (DIA). DIA revealed increased total areas of AgNORs in HG-SIL and CC compared to LG-SIL and control patients. AgNORs with a kidney or cluster shape exhibited greater areas than those with a spherical or long shape. We propose a cut-off of 118 pixels to differentiate benign (control and LG-SIL) from malignant (HG-SIL and CC) lesions. DIA of AgNORs is a simple and inexpensive method for studying proliferation. The increased total area of AgNORs in malignant lesions provides information regarding cell behavior and may be related to cervical carcinogenesis; however, further validation studies are required to establish its usefulness in cytological analysis. © 2015 The Biological Stain Commission.
Ledesma-Martinez E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Perez-Cordero C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Cordova-Galaviz Y.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Sanchez-Tellez G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
And 7 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2012
Acute myeloid leukaemia results from the neoplastic transformation of haematopoietic stem cells. Although advances have been made in its treatment, the mortality rate remains high. As a result, therapeutic alternatives continue to be explored. In this study, we present evidence that suggests that casein, the principal protein in milk, possesses significant antileukaemic properties. We investigated whether casein inhibited the in vitro proliferation and induced the apoptosis of the mouse myelomonocytic leukaemia cell line WEHI-3. By contrast, under identical conditions, casein markedly promotes the proliferation of mouse normal mononuclear bone marrow cells. Since the selective elimination of leukaemia cells is an ideal therapeutic strategy, we also evaluated the antileukaemic potential of casein in vivo. The results showed that casein increases the survival of mice bearing WEHI-3-induced tumours, suggesting that this molecule is also capable of inhibiting the proliferation of these cells in vivo. The evidence that casein inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in leukaemia cells in vitro, but increased survival in vivo in a leukaemia mouse model, indicates that casein may be useful in leukaemia therapy. © 2012 Spandidos Publications Ltd.
Perez-Flores E.,Mexican Social Security Institute IMSS |
Izquierdo-Puente J.C.,Coordination of Epidemiological Surveillance and Contingencies Support |
Castillo-Perez J.J.,Mexican Social Security Institute IMSS |
Ramirez-Rosales G.,Coordination of Epidemiological Surveillance and Contingencies Support |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014
Introduction: The frequency and mortality of the pandemic caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 might have been underestimated, especially in developing countries. This study was designed to quantify the possible underestimation of pandemic influenza mortality and evaluate the concordance between the data reported for A(H1N1)pdm09 mortality and the causes of death reported during the pandemic period of April 2009 to February 2010. Methodology: The death certificates of 754 confirmed cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were included in the study. Data was analyzed using the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's statistical model accounts for the variability in the proportion at each step using the Monte Carlo probabilistic model sampled from a uniform probability distribution. Results: A total of 1,969 deaths were estimated, with an estimated lethality of 5.53 per 100,000 (range, 3.5-8.76 per 100,000) in contrast with the 754 deaths and a lethality of 1.98 per 100,000 infected patients officially reported. In 631 of 754 (83.7%) death certificates from A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza-positive patients, influenza was not mentioned as a cause of death. Conclusions: It is possible that the mortality of the pandemic was three times higher than officially reported in Mexico. One source of error that could explain this underestimation is in the completion of death certificates, because in > 80% of confirmed cases of infection with influenza virus, it was not reported as the cause of death. © 2014 Pérez-Flores et al.
PubMed | Mexican Social Security Institute IMSS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of infection in developing countries | Year: 2014
The frequency and mortality of the pandemic caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 might have been underestimated, especially in developing countries. This study was designed to quantify the possible underestimation of pandemic influenza mortality and evaluate the concordance between the data reported for A(H1N1)pdm09 mortality and the causes of death reported during the pandemic period of April 2009 to February 2010.The death certificates of 754 confirmed cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were included in the study. Data was analyzed using the United States Centers for Disease Control and Preventions statistical model accounts for the variability in the proportion at each step using the Monte Carlo probabilistic model sampled from a uniform probability distribution.A total of 1,969 deaths were estimated, with an estimated lethality of 5.53 per 100,000 (range, 3.5-8.76 per 100,000) in contrast with the 754 deaths and a lethality of 1.98 per 100,000 infected patients officially reported. In 631 of 754 (83.7%) death certificates from A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza-positive patients, influenza was not mentioned as a cause of death.It is possible that the mortality of the pandemic was three times higher than officially reported in Mexico. One source of error that could explain this underestimation is in the completion of death certificates, because in > 80% of confirmed cases of infection with influenza virus, it was not reported as the cause of death.