Kanaun S.,Technological Institute of Higher Education of Monterrey |
Levin V.,Mexican Oil Institute
Solid Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2013
The work is devoted to the effective field method and its application in the theory of heterogenous materials. For many years, various versions of the method have been used for the calculation of effective physical and mechanical properties of composite materials (the homogenization problem). In the historical survey, the most important steps of the development of the method are indicated starting from nineteenth century. The main attention is focused on the combination of the effective field and numerical methods that yields efficient numerical algorithms for the calculation of effective properties and detailed fields in periodic and random composite materials. Examples of the application of the method to prediction of conductive, elastic, and elasto-plastic properties of composites are presented. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.
Kanaun S.,Mexican Oil Institute |
Markov A.,Monterrey Institute of Technology
International Journal of Engineering Science | Year: 2014
An efficient numerical method for the 3D-problem of elasticity for a solid with multiple interacting cracks is developed. The problem is reduced to a system of 2D-integral equations for the crack opening vectors. Discretization of these equations is performed by Gaussian approximation functions centered at a set of nodes uniformly distributed on the crack surfaces; the procedure results in five standard 1D-integrals that can be tabulated. For planar cracks of arbitrary shapes, these integrals are calculated in closed analytical forms. The method is mesh free. Examples of various interacting, as well as intersecting, cracks are considered and compared with the solutions available in literature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kanaun S.,Mexican Oil Institute |
Markov A.,Technological Institute of Higher Education of Monterrey |
Babaii S.,Technological Institute of Higher Education of Monterrey
International Journal of Fracture | Year: 2013
The second boundary value problem of elasticity for 3D-bodies containing cracks is considered. Presentation of the solution in the form of the double layer potential reduces the problem to a system of 2D-integral equations which kernels are similar for the body boundary and crack surfaces. For discretization of these equations, Caussian approximation functions centered at a set of nodes homogeneously distributed on the body and crack surfaces are used. For such functions, calculation of the elements of the matrix of the discretized problem is reduced to five standard 1D-integrals that can be tabulated. For planar cracks, these integrals are calculated in closed analytical forms. The method is mesh free, and for its performing, only node coordinates and surface orientations at the nodes should be defined. Calculation of stress intensity factors at the crack edges in the framework of the method is discussed. Examples of an elliptical crack, a lens-shaped crack, and a spherical body subjected to concentrated and distributed surface forces are considered. Numerical results are compared with the solutions of other authors presented in the literature. Convergence of the method with respect to the node grid steps is analyzed. An efficient algorithm of the node grid generation is proposed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
« Volkswagen Group begins EA189 diesel engine emission fixes in Europe; 2.0L Amarok first | Main | IDTechEx forecasts more than 300M 48V mild hybrids worldwide through 2031 » The Mexican Oil Institute (IMP) has developed a catalyst adsorbent material that removes 80% of organic compounds from crude oil prior to hydrodesulfurization. It allows Pemex, the Mexican oil company, to generate ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) more quickly and cheaply. Dr. Rodolfo Mora, head of the project, said that the research was initiated by Pemex’ need to convert its diesel from 500 parts per million (ppm) of sulfur to 15 ppm ULSD. Its use in a preliminary process will increase the life of the catalyst for up to 30 months over current standards by avoiding high temperatures and pressures during operation in the reactor. Dr. Mora said that with this material they sought to eliminate the organic nitrogen compounds found in crude oil, as these are strong inhibitors of the hydrodesulfurization process. By reducing its content, production is facilitated and becomes more profitable. During the first stage of the research, several Mexican institutions provided different materials (130 in total) to evaluate their adsorption capacity and selectivity of nitrogen compounds. In the end, the most viable was synthesized by IMP (IMP-NitSorb), which met the specifications to remove 80% of nitrogen through a simple and efficient process. Discovering different routes to prepare it resulted in several patent applications. In order to conduct a cost-benefit study for Pemex, the impact of reducing nitrogen before hydrodesulfurization was measured. The adsorption process was applied to a load that had an original content of 458 ppm of nitrogen to obtain a product with 87 ppm. Both loads, treated and untreated, were subjected to the hydrodesulfurization process. The results show that under the same conditions, the treated load reduces the reactor temperature between 25 and 30 °C, which increases the service life of the catalyst over the standard 30 months. In subsequent pilot studies, the team discovered that the adsorbent material can treat between 200 and 250 barrels of load per ton of adsorbent in each cycle, which means that if it useful life is of one thousand cycles (three years) each ton can treat between 200,000 and 250,000 barrels. Currently the team is working on scaling the development to an industrial level, which is expected to be operational in a year and a half.
News Article | April 15, 2016
The Mexican Oil Institute (IMP) has developed biosurfactants that reduce oil viscosity and lower operating costs. The technology allows for operational flexibility in the transport of crude oil through ducts from the production centers to refineries.