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Ex-Hacienda el Hospital, Mexico

Rangel-Lopez A.,Medical Research Unit on Nephrological Diseases | Paniagua-Medina M.E.,Medical Research Unit on Nephrological Diseases | Urban-Reyes M.,Infantile Hospital Federico Gomez | Cortes-Arredondo M.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | And 6 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2013

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have signs of genomic instability and, as a consequence, extensive genetic damage, possibly due to accumulation of uraemic toxins, oxidative stress mediators and other endogenous substances with genotoxic properties. We explored factors associated with the presence and background levels of genetic damage in CKD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 91 CKD patients including pre-dialysis (CKD patients; n = 23) and patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 33) or haemodialysis (HD; n = 35) and with 61 healthy subjects, divided into two subgroups with the older group being in the age range of the patients, serving as controls. Alkaline comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to determine DNA and chromosome damage, respectively, present in CKD. Markers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), thiols, advanced oxidation protein products and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine] and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were also measured. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the CKD group (46±4‰) when compared with the older control (oC) group (27.7±14). A significant increase in MN frequency (P < 0.05) was also seen in PD patients (41.9±14‰) versus the oC group. There was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (29.7±15.6‰; P = NS) versus the oC group. Comet assay data showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) of tail DNA intensity in cells of patients with CKD (15.6±7%) with respect to the total control (TC) group (11±1%). PD patients (14.8±7%) also have a significant increase (P < 0.001) versus the TC group. Again, there was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (12.5±3%) compared with the TC group. Patients with MN values in the upper quartile had increased cholesterol, triglycerides, AGEs and MDA levels and lower albumin levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male gender, diabetes and treatment modality were independently associated with higher levels of DNA damage. Our results suggest that oxidative stress, diabetes, gender and dialysis modality in CKD patients increased DNA and chromosome damage. To confirm these data, prospective clinical trials need to be performed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. Source

Cunningham A.F.,University of Birmingham | Flores-Langarica A.,University of Birmingham | Bobat S.,University of Birmingham | Medina C.C.D.,University of Birmingham | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2014

There are multiple, distinct B-cell populations in human beings and other animals such as mice. In the latter species, there is a well-characterized subset of B-cells known as B1 cells, which are enriched in peripheral sites such as the peritoneal cavity but are rare in the blood. B1 cells can be further subdivided into B1a and B1b subsets. There may be additional B1 subsets, though it is unclear if these are distinct populations or stages in the developmental process to become mature B1a and B1b cells. A limitation in understanding B1 subsets is the relative paucity of specific surface markers. In contrast to mice, the existence of B1 cells in human beings is controversial and more studies are needed to investigate the nature of these enigmatic cells. Examples of B1b antigens include pneumococcal polysaccharide and the Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi, both used routinely as vaccines in human beings and experimental antigens such as haptenated-Ficoll. In addition to inducing classical T-dependent responses some proteins are B1b antigens and can induce T-independent (TI) immunity, examples include factor H binding protein from Borrelia hermsii and porins from Salmonella. Therefore, B1b antigens can be proteinaceous or non-proteinaceous, induce TI responses, memory, and immunity, they exist in a diverse range of pathogenic bacteria, and a single species can contain multiple B1b antigens. An unexpected benefit to studying B1b cells is that they appear to have a propensity to recognize protective antigens in bacteria. This suggests that studying B1b cells may be rewarding for vaccine design as immunoprophylactic and immunotherapeutic interventions become more important due to the decreasing efficacy of small molecule antimicrobials. © 2014 Cunningham, Flores-Langarica, Bobat, Dominguez Medina, Cook, Ross, Lopez-Macias and Henderson. Source

Escobedo J.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Chavira I.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Martinez L.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Velasco X.,Rural Hospital in Tlacolula | And 2 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2010

Aims Aboriginal populations are experiencing an explosive rise in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and other glucose metabolism abnormalities in Mexican Zapotec and Mixe Indians and to determine their association with known risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca. Two communities of Zapotec population and three of Mixe population were randomly chosen. Mexican Indians ≥ 35 years old were invited to participate; 394 Zapotec and 730 Mixe Indians participated. Diabetes and other glucose metabolism abnormalities were diagnosed using standard World Health Organization criteria after an oral glucose tolerance test. Prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The crude prevalence of diabetes was 8.19% (95% CI 6.7-9.9%) and the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 8.27%, significantly higher among Zapotec (8.71%) than among Mixe Indians (6.90%). The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 9.9% and 4.7% of the studied subjects had impaired fasting glucose. The main risk factors related to the occurrence of diabetes were a family history of diabetes (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.9-8.8), obesity (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.6), hypertension (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.7) and a high-risk waist-hip ratio (4.6; 95% CI 1.2-17.7). Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes is high in this population, the highest so far reported in Mexican Indians. Mexico's health system faces a huge challenge to avert the advanced spread of diabetes in this susceptible population. © 2010 Diabetes UK. Source

Wong-Baeza I.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Wong-Baeza I.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | Alcantara-Hernandez M.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Alcantara-Hernandez M.,Polytechnic School of Algiers | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), is the first step in the inflammatory response to pathogens. Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, has a surface molecule with the characteristics of a PAMP. This molecule, which was termed lipopeptidophosphoglycan (LPPG), is recognized through TLR2 and TLR4 and leads to the release of cytokines from human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; LPPGactivated dendritic cells have increased expression of costimulatory molecules. LPPG activates NKT cells in a CD1d-dependent manner, and this interaction limits amebic liver abscess development. LPPG also induces antibody production, and anti-LPPG antibodies prevent disease development in animal models of amebiasis. Because LPPG is recognized by both the innate and the adaptive immune system (it is a "Pamptigen"), it may be a good candidate to develop a vaccine against E. histolytica infection and an effective adjuvant. Copyright © 2010 IsabelWong-Baeza et al. Source

Torres-Juarez F.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Cardenas-Vargas A.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Montoya-Rosales A.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | Gonzalez-Curiel I.,Mexican Institute for Social Security IMSS | And 4 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. The susceptibility to this disease depends to a great extent on the innate immune response against mycobacteria. Host defense peptides (HDP) are one of the first barriers to counteract infection. Cathelicidin (LL-37) is an HDP that has many immunomodulatory effects besides its weak antimicrobial activity. Despite advances in the study of the innate immune response in tuberculosis, the immunological role of LL-37 during M. tuberculosis infection has not been clarified. Monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv and then treated with 1, 5, or 15 μg/ml of exogenous LL-37 for 4, 8, and 24 h. Exogenous LL-37 decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) while inducing anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Interestingly, the decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines did not reduce antimycobacterial activity. These results are consistent with the concept that LL-37 can modulate the expression of cytokines during mycobacterial infection and this activity was independent of the P2X7 receptor. Thus, LL-37 modulates the response of macrophages during infection, controlling the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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