Activity and selectivity of alkaline and doublemetal cyanide catalysts in ethoxylation of fatty alcohols [Aktywnos̈ć i selektywnos̈ć katalizatora alkalicznego i katalizatora dimetalocyjankowego w reakcjach oksyetylenowania alkoholi tłuszczowych]
Janik J.,MEXEO |
Janik J.,University of Opole |
Przemysl Chemiczny | Year: 2015
C12-C14 fatty alcs. were ethoxylated with oxirane in presence of NaOH or a com. complex M1 x[M2(CN)6]yL (M1 = Zn2+, Fe2+ or Ni2+, M2 = Fe3+ or Co3+, L = H2O, F, CI, Br-, I, alcs., glycols, ethers or polyethers) catalyst, to study the reaction kinetics and product properties (hydrophilic-lipophytic balance, chem. compn., PhOH index, cloud point). The complex catalyst was more active and selective than the NaOH catalyst.
Chrusciel A.,MEXEO |
Hreczuch W.,MEXEO |
Czaja K.,University of Opole |
Sacher-Majewska B.,University of Opole
Thermochimica Acta | Year: 2016
The thermoanalytical studies of two types of the double metal cyanide catalysts were carried out. The identity of the catalysts was characterized by an elemental analysis and FTIR. The thermoanalytical examinations performed with the use of TG-DSC, EGA-FTIR, EGA-MS shed new light on views of the bonding of the ligands in the DMC. The chemical justification of the processes responsible for the TG/DSC steps was proposed. Several organic ligand complexing states were found in both types of catalysts. The ligand-DMC bondings were decomposing stepwise in relatively low temperature ranges, which could suggest their negligible role at catalytic reaction being performed usually at higher temperatures. The stoichiometric quantitative correlation between the values of TG steps responsible for the ligands evolution, and the concentration of total carbon, nitrogen and cobalt was found. The relationship was used as a base for the quantitative method of characterization of the DMC catalysts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Di Serio M.,University of Naples Federico II |
Tesser R.,University of Naples Federico II |
Russo V.,University of Naples Federico II |
Turco R.,University of Naples Federico II |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2015
The intermediates for the production of nonionic surfactants can be derived from petrochemicals and/or from renewable raw materials. In both, the role of catalysis is fundamental. In this paper the main results reported in the literature related with the catalysis for ethoxylation of fatty esters will be reviewed. The main open challenges for these technologies will be outlined. © 2015 AOCS.
Sun Y.-Q.,China Research Institute of Daily Chemical Industry |
Li W.-J.,China Research Institute of Daily Chemical Industry |
Wang W.-X.,China Research Institute of Daily Chemical Industry |
Li Q.-X.,China Research Institute of Daily Chemical Industry |
And 2 more authors.
Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents | Year: 2013
A novel polyether esterquat (EQDMS-3EO) was obtained by ethoxylation followed by quaternization of an ester-amine. Its structure and performance were examined. The softening, antistatic, rewettability properties and fabric whiteness impact were determined and compared to conventional esterquat compounds, known from the art in the field. The results showed that antistatic and rewettability properties of the EO-modified EQDMS-3EO were better than those of the conventional counterparts, and its softening property was comparable or better. As a result, EQDMS-3EO is a new softener with superior properties. © Carl Hanser Publisher, Munich.
Hreczuch W.,MEXEO |
Dabrowska K.,MEXEO |
Chrusciel A.,MEXEO |
Sznajdrowska A.,Poznan University of Technology |
Materna K.,Poznan University of Technology
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents | Year: 2016
The synthesis and basic properties of 2-ethylhexanol based innovative nonionic surfactants are described in this paper. 2-Ethylhexanol as an available and relatively inexpensive raw material was used as the hydrophobe source modified by propoxylation and followed by polyethoxylation. As the result, six series of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol polyalkoxylates (EHP m E n ) were obtained with three steps of propoxylation, each followed by polyethoxylation and two series only with polyethoxylation (EHE n ). Two different catalysts were used, a dimetalcyanide and KOH. Values of average conversion rates and chemical content of the obtained products (GC, TG and GPC techniques) were compared. The influence of the applied catalyst and polyaddition degree on the homologue distribution, reactant conversion and amount of byproducts is discussed. The basic physicochemical parameters including refractive index, solubility in polar media, foaming properties and wettability were investigated and compared. Furthermore, surface activity parameters, i.e. surface tension (γ CMC) and critical micelle concentrations were determined. Results are compared to C12-14 alcohol ethoxylates (LaE n ). Accordingly, it was found that the studied 2-ethylhexyl alcohol based compounds are effective, low foaming nonionic surfactants. © 2015 The Author(s).
Materna K.,Poznan University of Technology |
Tic W.J.,Opole University of Technology |
Sokolowski A.,Wroclaw University of Technology |
Central European Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011
A series of ethoxylates of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol mono-isobutyrate representing a synthetic C12 hydroxyester hydrophobe was obtained. The solubility parameters, surface tension and critical micelle concentrations for model solutions were investigated. The new surfactants were found to produce extremely low foam levels and a non-standard surface interfacial behavior was determined. It was observed that the ethoxylates of the C12 hydroxyester formed an oriented monolayer at the interface regardless of their average polyaddition degree. Such behavior is different from the surface activities of commonly known linear nonionic surfactants and it indicates self organization of the surfactants at the interface. This feature offers possibility for application of these surfactants in nanotechnology as well as in the conventional cleaning processes. © Versita Sp. z o.o.
Lawniczak-Jablonska K.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016
Double metal cyanide (DMC) catalysts are commonly applied at industrial ring opening polymerization of epoxides. Nevertheless, the knowledge on the molecular nature of their high activity and selectivity is limited. XAS studies were performed to look for the possible catalytic centre in this family of catalysts. DMC catalysts were synthesized from ZnCl2 and potassium hexacyanocobaltate(III) solution, in the presence of the different organic ligands and show significant fraction of the non-crystalline structure. Two ligands were analysed (tert-butanol ( t BuOH) or glyme (CH3OCH2CH2OCH3)). EXAFS analysis established that only Zn atoms are the active metallic centers in DMC regardless the used ligand. The coordination around Zn was changed from octahedral in reference non catalytic material to tetrahedral in catalysts, and Cl atoms were detected near some of Zn atoms.
Lawniczak-Jablonska K.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Dynowska E.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Lisowski W.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Sobczak J.W.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
And 4 more authors.
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2015
Double metal cyanide (DMC) catalysts are commonly applied at industrial ring-opening polymerization of the epoxides, being the initial stage of the polyurethanes manufacturing route. This group of catalysts is frequently used in industry, but the knowledge on the molecular nature of their high activity and selectivity is limited to some phenomenological hypotheses based on overall chemical premises. To shine some light on the relation between structural and chemical properties of DMC catalysts and their activity, the complementary X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies were performed. The comprehensive characterization of DMC catalyst synthesized from ZnCl2 and potassium hexacyanocobaltate(III) solution, in presence of the organic ligand (tBuOH), confirmed that a significant part of the catalyst material reveals the features of the non-crystalline structure. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis established that only Zn atoms are the active metallic centers in the DMC catalyst. The coordination around Zn was changed from octahedral in reference material to tetrahedral in catalysts, and Cl atoms were detected near some of the Zn atoms, but no significant amount of oxygen atoms was detected, which agrees with XPS chemical analysis. The performed experimental studies give direct experimental evidence for the model deduced by Zhang et al., and for the calculation performed by Wojdeł et al. Moreover, the generally accepted formula Zn3[Co(CN)6]2•xZnCl2•ytBuOH•zH2O describing this catalyst is not valid, because none of the compounds were detected by XRD or EXAFS techniques. Regarding the relation between structural and chemical activity of catalyst, we conclude that for the chemical activity of DMC catalyst not only is the content of Cl very important, but also the fraction of non-crystalline phase, the formation of which is stimulated by ligand. The non-crystalline fraction of catalyst may offer the easier access to the active center with Cl. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Guzialowska-Tic J.,Opole University of Technology |
Hreczuch W.,Mexeo |
Tic W.J.,Opole University of Technology
Przemysl Chemiczny | Year: 2012
Numerical data on prodn. and consumption of vegetable oils and animal fats were collected and analyzed.