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Helsinki, Finland

Karha K.,Metsateho Oy | Jylha P.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Laitila J.,Finnish Forest Research Institute
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

To increase the volume of energy wood and pulpwood harvested from early thinnings, their procurement costs will have to be significantly reduced. This can be done through the integration of pulpwood and energy wood procurement applying a newly-developed supply chain based on whole-tree bundling. In 2007, the first prototype of the bundle harvester capable of incorporating compaction into the cutting phase was launched. Cost savings, especially in primary and secondary transportation, can be achieved by increasing the load sizes by replacing undelimbed whole trees with bundles. The bundles can be hauled by a standard forwarder to the roadside storage area, from where they are transported by a standard timber truck to the pulp mill. Batches of bundles are then fed into a wood flow consisting of conventional delimbed pulpwood. Separation of the bundles into pulpwood and energy wood fractions does not take place until the wood reaches the debarking drum.In this feasibility study, the required productivity level of bundle harvesting (i.e., cutting and bundling) in Scots pine-dominated stands was assessed by comparing the total supply chain costs based on whole-tree bundling with those of the other pulpwood and energy wood supply chains by means of system analysis. The cost calculations indicated that whole-tree bundling enables the procurement costs to be reduced to below the current cost level of separate pulpwood and energy wood procurement in early thinnings. The greatest cost-saving potential lies in small-diameter (d1.3=7-10cm) first-thinning stands, which are currently unprofitable for conventional pulpwood procurement. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Karha K.,Metsateho Oy
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

Metsäteho Oy surveyed the industrial supply chains used in the production of forest chips in 2006 in Finland. The Metsäteho study also conducted a survey of the production machinery of forest chips used by energy plants in 2007, and provided an estimate of industrial supply chains and future machinery requirements for forest chip production in Finland.The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in 2006. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. The majority of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant, and with only around one fifth comminuted at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. It was predicted that the roles of both terminal chipping of logging residues and chipping at the plant will increase by the year 2010. Regarding the production of chips from small-diameter wood, it was estimated that the role of chipping at the plant will also increase in coming years. The proportion of roadside chipping in the production of small-sized wood chips and logging residue chips is expected to decrease.The study estimated that a total of 1100 machine and truck units were employed in the production of forest chips for energy plants in 2007. Increasing forest chip consumption will create considerable demand for additional forest chip production resources in the future. © 2010.

In order to increase the harvesting volumes of energy wood and pulpwood from first thinnings, harvesting costs have to be reduced significantly. Metsäteho Oy studied the integrated harvesting of pulpwood and energy wood based on a two-pile method, where industrial roundwood (pulpwood) and energy wood fractions are stacked into two separate piles when cutting a first-thinning stand. The productivity and cost levels of the integrated, two-pile cutting method were determined, and the harvesting costs of the two-pile method were compared with those of conventional separate wood harvesting methods.In the time studies, when the size of removal was 50 dm3, the productivity in conventional whole-tree cutting was 6% higher than in integrated cutting. With a stem size of 100 dm3, the productivity of whole-tree cutting was 7% higher than in integrated cutting. The results indicated, however, that integrated harvesting based on the two-pile cutting method enables harvesting costs to be decreased to below the current cost level of separate pulpwood harvesting in first-thinning stands. The greatest cost-saving potential lies in small-sized (d1.3 = 7-11 cm) first thinnings. The costs of forest haulage after integrated pulpwood and energy wood cutting were higher than those of separate wood harvesting because of lower removals in integrated harvesting. The results showed that when integrated wood harvesting is based on the two-pile cutting method, the removals of both energy wood and pulpwood should be more than 20-25 m3 ha-1 at the integrated harvesting sites in order to achieve economically viable integrated procurement. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Jylha P.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Dahl O.,Aalto University | Laitila J.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Karha K.,Metsateho Oy
Silva Fennica | Year: 2010

The efficiencies of wood supply systems based on cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting, the harvesting of loose whole trees, and whole-tree bundling were compared using the relative wood paying capabilities (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as decisive criteria. The WPCs from mill to stump were calculated for three first-thinning stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with mean breast-height diameter of the removal of 6, 8, and 12 cm. Pulp price had a strong effect on the WPC, and the CTL system resulted in the highest WPC per m3 at stump. The savings in procurement costs and gains in energy generation from additional raw material acquired with the harvesting of loose whole trees did not compensate the losses in pulp production. Considering removal per hectare, loose whole trees gave the highest WPCs at stump in the two stands with the smallest trees and the highest proportion of additional raw material. Decrease in pulp price and increase in energy price improved the competitiveness of the whole-tree systems. In the case of whole-tree bundling, savings in transportation costs did not balance the high cutting and compaction costs, and the bundling system was the least competitive alternative.

Kaartinen H.,Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI | Hyyppa J.,Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI | Vastaranta M.,University of Helsinki | Kukko A.,Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI | And 11 more authors.
Forests | Year: 2015

A harvester enables detailed roundwood data to be collected during harvesting operations by means of the measurement apparatus integrated into its felling head. These data can be used to improve the efficiency of wood procurement and also replace some of the field measurements, and thus provide both less costly and more detailed ground truth for remote sensing based forest inventories. However, the positional accuracy of harvester-collected tree data is not sufficient currently to match the accuracy per individual trees achieved with remote sensing data. The aim in the present study was to test the accuracy of various instruments utilizing global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) in motion under forest canopies of varying densities to enable us to get an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in GNSS-based positioning under forest canopies. Tests were conducted using several different combinations of GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) mounted on an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) "simulating" a moving harvester. The positions of 224 trees along the driving route were measured using a total-station and real-time kinematic GPS. These trees were used as reference items. The position of the ATV was obtained using GNSS and IMU with an accuracy of 0.7 m (root mean squared error (RMSE) for 2D positions). For the single-frequency GNSS receivers, the RMSE of real-time 2D GNSS positions was 4.2-9.3 m. Based on these results, it seems that the accuracy of novel single-frequency GNSS devices is not so dependent on forest conditions, whereas the performance of the tested geodetic dual-frequency receiver is very sensitive to the visibility of the satellites. When postprocessing can be applied, especially when combined with IMU data, the improvement in the accuracy of the dual-frequency receiver was significant. © 2015 by the authors.

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