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Vaisanen R.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are re-vised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Pitkanen T.P.,University of Turku | Mussaari M.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services | Kayhko N.,University of Turku
Environmental Management | Year: 2014

Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have rapidly declined and become fragmented in Northern Europe due to ceased traditional agricultural practices and animal husbandry. Restoration actions have been introduced in many places to improve the habitat conditions and increase the area to prevent any further losses of their ecological values. However, given the limited resources and long time span needed for successful restoration, it is essential to target activities on sites having a suitable initial state and where the effects of restoration are most beneficial for the habitat network. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the restoration potential of partially overgrown and selectively managed semi-natural grasslands in a moderately transformed agricultural environment in south-western Finland. On the basis of the spatio-temporal landscape trajectory analysis, we construct potential restoration scenarios based on expected semi-natural grassland characteristics that are derived from land productivity, detected grassland continuum, and date of overgrowth. These scenarios are evaluated using landscape metrics, their feasibility is discussed and the effects of potential restoration are compared to the present extent of open semi-natural grasslands. Our results show that landscape trajectory analysis and scenario construction can be valuable tools for the restoration planning of semi-natural grasslands with limited resources. The approach should therefore be considered as an essential tool to find the most optimal restoration sites and to pre-evaluate the effects. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Ilmonen J.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera) is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes) and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum). Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record. © Jari Ilmonen.

Kangas K.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | Kangas K.,Oulanka Research Station and Thule Institute | Vuori K.-M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Maatta-Juntunen H.,University of Oulu | Siikamaki P.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
Boreal Environment Research | Year: 2012

Ski resorts are important tourist attractions in boreal and alpine regions. However, land use related to development of such mass tourism may damage ecosystems. We investigated the impact of ski resorts on water quality of lakes near two popular ski resorts in Finland. Furthermore, we examined how water quality problems induced by ski resorts relate to effects of agriculture and forestry on similar lake types. Human impact significantly increased nutrient concentrations, although the differences observed between impact and control lakes were generally small. Water quality of the ski resort lakes and lakes polluted by agriculture and forestry appeared to be quite similar, with the exception of a small, humic ski-resort lake with extremely high nutrient concentrations. Two ski-resort lakes and one agricultural lake failed the total phosphorus criteria set for reaching good ecological status. Our results indicate that water protection measures should be considered more carefully in management of ski resorts. © 2012.

Haapalehto T.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services | Haapalehto T.,University of Jyvaskyla | Kotiaho J.S.,University of Jyvaskyla | Matilainen R.,University of Jyvaskyla | Tahvanainen T.,University of Eastern Finland
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

Degradation by drainage threatens biodiversity and globally important peatland ecosystem functions such as long-term carbon sequestration in peat. Restoration aims at safeguarding peatland values by recovering natural hydrology. Long-term effects of drainage and subsequent restoration, especially related to within-site variation of water table level and pore water chemistry, are poorly known. We studied hydrological variation at 38 boreal Sphagnum peatland sites (pristine, drained and restored) in Finland. The average water table level was significantly lower at Drained than Pristine sites especially near the ditches. We also observed large pore water chemical differences between Drained and Pristine sites, such as higher DOC concentration at the sites drained several decades earlier. Furthermore, there were large differences in water chemistry between the samples collected from ditches and from the peat strips between the ditches. For example, the ditch water had apparently higher minerogenic influence, while DOC concentrations were highest in peat strips. The water table level was, on average, at the targeted level of Pristine sites at 5. years ago restored (Res 5) and 10. years ago restored (Res 10) sites. The Res 10 sites were more similar to the Pristine sites in water chemical composition than were the Drained sites. Water chemical differences between ditches and peat strips were smaller at the Res 5 and Res 10 than at Drained sites indicating, on average, successful decrease of drainage-induced within-site variation in water chemistry. Our results suggest more pronounced water table inclination towards the old ditches at Res 10 than at Res 5 sites. While this pattern may be an early warning sign for incomplete recovery of hydrology in long-term, we found no chemical evidence supporting this assumption yet. Our study suggests that restoration can result in significant recovery of peatland hydrology within 10. years, while some deviation from pristine hydrology is still typical. Restoration appears to have potential to reduce leaching of nutrients and DOC to downstream waters in the long term, but practitioners should be prepared for temporary increase of leaching of N and P for at least 5. years after restoration of boreal Sphagnum peatlands. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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