Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services

Vantaa, Finland

Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services

Vantaa, Finland

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Pitkanen T.P.,University of Turku | Mussaari M.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services | Kayhko N.,University of Turku
Environmental Management | Year: 2014

Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have rapidly declined and become fragmented in Northern Europe due to ceased traditional agricultural practices and animal husbandry. Restoration actions have been introduced in many places to improve the habitat conditions and increase the area to prevent any further losses of their ecological values. However, given the limited resources and long time span needed for successful restoration, it is essential to target activities on sites having a suitable initial state and where the effects of restoration are most beneficial for the habitat network. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for evaluating the restoration potential of partially overgrown and selectively managed semi-natural grasslands in a moderately transformed agricultural environment in south-western Finland. On the basis of the spatio-temporal landscape trajectory analysis, we construct potential restoration scenarios based on expected semi-natural grassland characteristics that are derived from land productivity, detected grassland continuum, and date of overgrowth. These scenarios are evaluated using landscape metrics, their feasibility is discussed and the effects of potential restoration are compared to the present extent of open semi-natural grasslands. Our results show that landscape trajectory analysis and scenario construction can be valuable tools for the restoration planning of semi-natural grasslands with limited resources. The approach should therefore be considered as an essential tool to find the most optimal restoration sites and to pre-evaluate the effects. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Haapalehto T.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services | Haapalehto T.,University of Jyväskylä | Kotiaho J.S.,University of Jyväskylä | Matilainen R.,University of Jyväskylä | Tahvanainen T.,University of Eastern Finland
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

Degradation by drainage threatens biodiversity and globally important peatland ecosystem functions such as long-term carbon sequestration in peat. Restoration aims at safeguarding peatland values by recovering natural hydrology. Long-term effects of drainage and subsequent restoration, especially related to within-site variation of water table level and pore water chemistry, are poorly known. We studied hydrological variation at 38 boreal Sphagnum peatland sites (pristine, drained and restored) in Finland. The average water table level was significantly lower at Drained than Pristine sites especially near the ditches. We also observed large pore water chemical differences between Drained and Pristine sites, such as higher DOC concentration at the sites drained several decades earlier. Furthermore, there were large differences in water chemistry between the samples collected from ditches and from the peat strips between the ditches. For example, the ditch water had apparently higher minerogenic influence, while DOC concentrations were highest in peat strips. The water table level was, on average, at the targeted level of Pristine sites at 5. years ago restored (Res 5) and 10. years ago restored (Res 10) sites. The Res 10 sites were more similar to the Pristine sites in water chemical composition than were the Drained sites. Water chemical differences between ditches and peat strips were smaller at the Res 5 and Res 10 than at Drained sites indicating, on average, successful decrease of drainage-induced within-site variation in water chemistry. Our results suggest more pronounced water table inclination towards the old ditches at Res 10 than at Res 5 sites. While this pattern may be an early warning sign for incomplete recovery of hydrology in long-term, we found no chemical evidence supporting this assumption yet. Our study suggests that restoration can result in significant recovery of peatland hydrology within 10. years, while some deviation from pristine hydrology is still typical. Restoration appears to have potential to reduce leaching of nutrients and DOC to downstream waters in the long term, but practitioners should be prepared for temporary increase of leaching of N and P for at least 5. years after restoration of boreal Sphagnum peatlands. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Hansen J.P.,University of Stockholm | Snickars M.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services | Snickars M.,Åbo Akademi University
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2014

Vegetated soft bottoms are under pressure due to a number of anthropogenic stressors, such as coastal exploitation and eutrophication. The ecological value of these biotopes has gained recognition through international conventions and the EU directives, which request methods for assessment of the environmental status of coastal areas. However, currently there is no appropriate method for assessing the status of shallow vegetated soft bottoms in the northern Baltic Sea. Therefore, we developed a macrophyte community index and tested its response in relation to important pressures (eutrophication and boating activity) and natural gradients (topographic openness, depth and salinity) on shallow bays in the northern Baltic Sea. The macrophyte index, and hence the proportion of sensitive to tolerant species, decreased with increasing phosphorus concentration, turbidity and level of boating activity, while the cumulative cover of macrophytes only showed a negative trend in response to increasing turbidity. Juvenile fish abundance was positively related to the index, indicating importance of sensitive macrophyte species for ecosystem functioning. As the index was tested in a wide geographic area, and showed a uniform response across natural gradients, it is a promising tool for assessment of environmental status that may be applied also in other vegetated soft-bottom areas. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Vaisanen R.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are re-vised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Mycomya Rondani specimens from the Himalayas, mostly Nepal and Myanmar, are revised. Pavomya subg. n. is de-scribed. Altogether nine species from the subgenera Calomycomya, Cymomya, Neomycomya and Pavomya subg. n. are recorded from the Himalayas and Indian subcontinent. The paper includes a key to the subgenera of Mycomya and the Himalayan species of Mycomya of the four subgenera. The following eight new species are described: M. aonyx, M. cuon, M. kambaitiensis, M. marmota, M. paguma, M. panthera, M. ratufa and M. wah.Mycomya fimbriata (Meigen) is recorded from Myanmar. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Ilmonen J.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera) is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes) and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum). Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record. © Jari Ilmonen.

Vaisanen R.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

Mycomya Rondani specimens from the Himalayas, mostly Nepal and Myanmar, are revised. Altogether four species of the subgenus Cesamya Koçak & Kemal and eleven species of the subgenus Mycomyopsis Väisänen are recorded from the Himalayas and the Indian subcontinent. The paper includes a key to the Himalayan species of Mycomya of the two subgenera. The following fourteen new species are described: M. aix, M. alticola, M. banteng, M. cissa, M. ducula, M. irena, M. goral, M. jeti, M. kaa, M. naja, M. niltava, M. pitta, M. sachak, and M. sanar. The holotype of M. unipectinata Edwards from Sri Lanka was also examined and its genitalia are described. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Vaisanen R.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
Entomologica Fennica | Year: 2013

The material of the genus Mycomya Rondani from South Korea is revised. The following three new species are described: M. yamagishii sp. n., M. mogera sp. n., and M. sudosanensis sp. n. Mycomya winnertzi (Dziedzicki), M. dziedzickii Väisänen, M. occultons (Winnertz), M. wuorentausi Väisänen, and M. paraden-tata Väisänen are recorded as new to the South Korean fauna. A key is given to the South Korean species. © Entomologica Fennica. 8 October 2013.

Heikkala O.,University of Eastern Finland | Suominen M.,University of Eastern Finland | Junninen K.,Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services | Hamalainen A.,University of Eastern Finland | Kouki J.,University of Eastern Finland
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2014

Retention forestry has been used for over 20years to reduce the unfavorable impacts of intensive forest management on biodiversity. The assumed positive effects of retention trees, however, depend on the dynamics of trees in providing substrates or structures for forest-dwelling organisms. In 2000 an experimental study was established to investigate the effects of different retention levels (10m3ha-1 and 50m3ha-1) and fire on tree dynamics. In total, 2758 individually marked, initially living, retention trees were followed on 12 sites in eastern Finland over 10 post-harvest years. Over half (59%) of the total volume of the retention trees died during these initial 10years, and burning resulted in much higher mortality (84% vs. 34% on unburned sites). At lower retention levels, retention trees did not provide continuity of habitat substrates since all trees died quickly. Fire shortened the tree availability, due to increased tree mortality. However, in higher retention levels, burned areas maintained diverse deadwood substrates for an extended period. Our study proved that tree retention can maintain the continuity of dead wood over early successional stages, if the level of retention is high enough. Fire, combined with higher retention level, created diverse assemblages of dead and living trees. At lower retention levels, however, the effect of fire can be too severe for maintaining living trees or continuity of diverse dead wood. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Metsahallitus Natural Heritage Services
Type: | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Myconya Rondani specimens from the Himalayas, mostly Nepal and Myanmar, are revised. Pavoniya subg. n. is described. Altogether nine species from the subgenera Calomycoinya, Cymnoniya, Neoinycoinya and Pavomya subg. n. are recorded from the Himalayas and Indian subcontinent. The paper includes a key to the subgenera of Myconiya and the Himalayan species of Mycomya of the four subgenera. The following eight new species are described: M. aonyx, M. cuon, M. kainbaitiensis, M. marmota, M. paguina, M. panthera, M. ratufa and M. wah. Mycomyafiubriata (Meigen) is recorded from Myanmar.

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