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Ravva P.,Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals | Gastonguay M.R.,Metrum Research Group LLC | Faessel H.M.,Takeda Cambridge | Lee T.C.,Pfizer | Niaura R.,Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2015

Introduction: Varenicline has been shown to significantly reduce craving and several aspects of smoking reinforcement in clinical trials, compared with placebo. This is the first report describing the concentration-effect relationship of varenicline on relief of craving. Methods: The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of a single 2 mg dose of varenicline were investigated in 40 smokers in a randomized, crossover study comparing the effect of varenicline with placebo on ameliorating abstinence-and cue-induced craving and withdrawal symptoms. Subjects were asked to complete self-reported questionnaires (Smoking Urges Scale and Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale [MNWS]) and blood samples were simultaneously collected for measurement of varenicline concentrations. Only the data from the 4-hr postdose abstinence period (just prior to the cue session) were analyzed. Data were described by a 2-compartment PK model and a linear PD model with first-order onset/offset rate constants describing the placebo response "kinetics." Response was described as the net effect of the baseline, placebo, and drug responses. Results: Varenicline significantly decreased mean craving score when compared with placebo and the magnitude of this response was related to varenicline concentration. The time-course and magnitude of both placebo and varenicline craving response were characterized by a large degree of unexplained variability. Simulations were used to illustrate the expected craving response over time and its associated random variability after chronic dosing. Conclusions: Craving reduction is associated with increased varenicline concentrations. The relatively rapid onset of this effect within 4 hr postdose suggests that, smokers may experience some craving relief after acute administration of varenicline. © The Author 2014.

Riggs M.M.,Metrum Research Group LLC
Journal of clinical pharmacology | Year: 2012

A physiologically based, multiscale model of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling was used to describe the impact of progressive loss of kidney function over a typical 10-year course of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including the evolution of secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) caused by diminished renal phosphate clearance and increased plasma phosphate. An important sequela of HPT is marked elevations in bone resorption and loss of bone mineral density (BMD). Clinically, this CKD-related disease state is described as mineral bone disorder, or CKD-MBD. A multiscale physiologic model previously had been shown to describe CKD-MBD-related clinical changes in phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitriol. The authors have extended the model to link bone remodeling markers with BMD elimination (0.000145 h(-1)) and formation rates. The composite model predicted lumbar spine BMD losses, relative to baseline, at months 28 (glomerular filtration rate = 58 mL/min), 50 (39 mL/min), and 120 (16 mL/min) of approximately -0.98%, -3.0%, and -6.5%, respectively, compared to the observed BMD values in corresponding renal function groups, scaled to a 100-mL/min baseline, of -0.5%, -4.0%, and -8.1%, respectively. In addition, simulated interventions with a hypothetical calcimimetic agent and calcitriol are provided to show the utility of this model as a platform for evaluating therapeutics.

Peterson M.C.,Pfizer | Riggs M.M.,Metrum Research Group LLC
CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology | Year: 2012

A mathematical model component that extends an existing physiologically based multiscale systems pharmacology model (MSPM) of calcium and bone homeostasis was developed, enabling prediction of nonlinear changes in lumbar spine bone mineral density (LSBMD). Data for denosumab, a monoclonal antibody osteoporosis treatment, dosed at several levels and regimens, was used for fitting the BMD component. Bone marker and LSBMD data extracted from the literature described on/off-treatment effects of denosumab over 48 months [Miller, P.D. et al. Effect of denosumab on bone density and turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass after long-term continued, discontinued, and restarting of therapy: a randomized blinded phase 2 clinical trial. Bone 43, 222?229 (2008)]. An indirect model linking bone markers to LSBMD was embedded in the existing MSPM, reasonably predicting nonlinear increases in LSBMD during treatment (24 months); LSBMD declines following discontinuation and increases upon treatment reinstitution. This study demonstrates the utility of MSPM extension to describe a phenomena of interest not originally in a model, and the ability of this updated MSPM to predict nonlinear longitudinal changes in the clinically relevant endpoint, LSBMD, with denosumab treatment. © 2012 AScpt All rights reserved.

Peterson M.C.,Amgen | Riggs M.M.,Metrum Research Group LLC
Bone | Year: 2010

Bone biology is physiologically complex and intimately linked to calcium homeostasis. The literature provides a wealth of qualitative and/or quantitative descriptions of cellular mechanisms, bone dynamics, associated organ dynamics, related disease sequela, and results of therapeutic interventions. We present a physiologically based mathematical model of integrated calcium homeostasis and bone biology constructed from literature data. The model includes relevant cellular aspects with major controlling mechanisms for bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis and appropriately describes a broad range of clinical and therapeutic conditions. These include changes in plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol, calcium and phosphate (PO4), and bone-remodeling markers as manifested by hypoparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism, renal insufficiency, daily PTH 1-34 administration, and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibition. This model highlights the utility of systems approaches to physiologic modeling in the bone field. The presented bone and calcium homeostasis model provides an integrated mathematical construct to conduct hypothesis testing of influential system aspects, to visualize elements of this complex endocrine system, and to continue to build upon iteratively with the results of ongoing scientific research. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ravva P.,Pfizer | Gastonguay M.R.,Metrum Research Group LLC | French J.L.,Pfizer | Tensfeldt T.G.,Pfizer | Faessel H.M.,Pfizer
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Population exposure-response analyses involving ∼2,000 cigarette smokers provided an integrated understanding of dose, exposure, patient characteristics, and response relating to the efficacy and tolerability of varenicline for smoking cessation. Full models with a linear function of area under the concentration-time curve at steady state AUC(0-24) ss and covariate effects on the baseline probability of response were constructed. Logistic regression results consistently showed that the end-of-treatment abstinence rate increased with increasing varenicline exposure, from 38% at 0.5mg b.i.d. to 56% at 1mg b.i.d. (vs. 22% for placebo). Baseline smoking status and age were predictive of smoking cessation, whereas race and gender showed little or no influence. Nausea was the most common adverse event, with an incidence that was gender-related and that increased with varenicline exposure; at a dosage of 1mg b.i.d. the predicted probability of nausea relative to placebo was 24 vs. 7% in male subjects and 40 vs. 14% in female subjects. The incidence of nausea also showed a decreasing trend with time. © 2009 American Society for clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

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