Framingham, MA, United States
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Baker J.R.,Weil Foot and Ankle Institute | Klein E.E.,Weil Foot and Ankle Institute | Weil Jr. L.,Weil Foot and Ankle Institute | Weil L.S.,Weil Foot and Ankle Institute | Knight J.M.,MetroWest Medical Center
Foot and Ankle Specialist | Year: 2013

Subtalar joint arthroereisis is a surgical modality that has been shown to be an effective procedure for flexible flatfoot in both pediatric and adult populations. Despite advances in understanding its mechanics and function, complication and implant removal rates remain as high as 30% to 40%. Analysis was performed to determine the survivability of 2 subtalar joint arthroereisis implants, absorbable and nonabsorbable, used alone and in combination with other procedures in both the adult and pediatric populations. The 95 total arthroereisis procedures were analyzed in several major categories: absorbable implants versus nonabsorbable implants and adult versus pediatric patients. Each major group was then further subdivided to create further subgroups: absorbable isolated procedures, absorbable combined procedures, nonabsorbable isolated procedures, and nonabsorbable combined procedures. The overall survival rates were 83% for absorbable implants and 81% for nonabsorbable implants. A total of 11 (17%) absorbable implants and 6 (19%) nonabsorbable implants were removed, respectively, at an average of 9 months and 23 months postoperatively. When used alone and in combination with other procedures, 36% and 13% of absorbable implants and 18% and 19% of nonabsorbable implants, respectively, were removed. When comparing adult versus pediatric populations, the overall survival rates of the absorbable and nonabsorbable implants were 81% for absorbable implants and 79% for nonabsorbable implants in the adult population and 85% for absorbable implants and 100% for nonabsorbable implants in the pediatric population.Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level III; Retrospective comparative series © 2012 The Author(s).


Cheungpasitporn W.,Mayo Medical School | Thongprayoon C.,Mayo Medical School | Chiasakul T.,Chulalongkorn University | Korpaisarn S.,MetroWest Medical Center | Erickson S.B.,Mayo Medical School
QJM | Year: 2015

Background: The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the risk of anemia in patients who received reninangiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through November, 2014. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the anemia risk in patients who received angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) vs. those who did not were included. We performed the prespecified sensitivity analysis including only only studies with confounder adjusted analysis. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a randomeffect, generic inverse variance method. Results: Seven studies (2 cohort and 5 cross-sectional studies) with 29 061 patients were included in the analysis to assess the risk of anemia and the RAS inhibitors use. The pooled RR of anemia in patients receiving ACEIs was 1.56 (95% CI, 1.40-1.73, I2 = 17%). When meta-analysis was limited only to studies with confounder adjusted analysis, the pooled RR of anemia in patients using ACEIs was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.43-1.73, I2 = 0%) The pooled RR of anemia in patients receiving ARBs was 1.60 (95% CI, 1.27-2.00, I2 = 39%). The meta-analysis of studies with confounder adjusted analysis demonstrated the pooled RR of anemia in patients using ARBs of 1.59 (95% CI, 1.38-1.83, I2 = 0%). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates an association between anemia and the use of RAS inhibitors. Hematological parameters should be monitored in patients treated with RAS inhibitors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians.


Urato A.C.,Tufts University | Urato A.C.,MetroWest Medical Center
International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Rates of antidepressant use during pregnancy are rising worldwide. It is, therefore, essential to determine the effects of these medications in pregnancy and on the developing fetus. OBJECTIVE: To review the two main explanatory models for understanding the effects of antidepressant use during pregnancy and compare the evidence to support them. METHODS: Review, synthesis, and discussion of the available literature. RESULTS: The preponderance of the basic science, animal data, and human studies supports the viewthat the Harmful Chemical Model is the best explanatory framework for understanding the effects of the SSRI antidepressants during pregnancy. They do not appear to be helpful medications that produce better outcomes for moms and babies. They are not like using insulin in pregnant diabetics. Their profile fits more with a harmful chemical exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The totality of the scientific evidence convincingly suggests that the SSRI antidepressants are chemicals that do cause fetal harm and that the FDA should strongly consider changing the FDA Category from C to D for the entire class. This move would provide appropriate warning to the public while still allowing for use in selected cases. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Akabane H.,Metrowest Medical Center | Sullivan R.J.,Massachusetts General Hospital
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology | Year: 2016

Melanoma is a malignancy of pigment-producing cells that is driven by a variety of genetic mutations and aberrations. In most cases, this leads to upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through activating mutations of upstream mediators of the pathway including BRAF and NRAS. With the advent of effective MAPK pathway inhibitors, including the US FDA-approved BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib and MEK inhibitor trametinib, molecular analysis has become an integral part of the care of patients with metastatic melanoma. In this article, the key molecular targets and strategies to inhibit these targets therapeutically are presented, and the techniques of identifying these targets, in both tissue and blood, are discussed. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Grunwald I.Q.,Anglia Ruskin University | Kuhn A.L.,MetroWest Medical Center | Schmitt A.J.,University of Oxford | Schmitt A.J.,University College London | Balami J.S.,University of Oxford
Journal of Invasive Cardiology | Year: 2014

The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the management of the most common complications encountered during subarachnoid hemorrhage and endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. We reviewed the literature and identified the complications encountered during endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. We report current management strategies of complications associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage and the interventional procedure. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains a devastating condition, with high mortality and poor outcome among survivors. The successful treatment of intracranial aneurysms requires a multidisciplinary approach and the treating physicians need to be aware of predisposing factors for complications, their frequency, and also their management.


Baroletti S.,MetroWest Medical Center | Catella J.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Ehle M.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Cheng J.W.M.,Brigham and Women's Hospital
Critical Pathways in Cardiology | Year: 2010

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, stroke, and hospitalization in the United States. Amiodarone is generally considered as the agent with the best efficacy for maintaining normal sinus rhythm. Despite its efficacy, amiodarone use is often limited by its extensive side effect profile. Dronedarone is a noniodinated benzofuran derivative of amiodarone that has been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to reduce cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with AF or atrial flutter. Structural modification of dronedarone was introduced to shorten the half-life, decrease lipophilicity, and minimize noncardiovascular toxicity as compared to amiodarone. This article reviews the pharmacology, adverse effects, and clinical evidence available to date of the use of dronedarone in the management of AF. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Baroletti S.,Metrowest Medical Center | Hurwitz S.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Conti N.A.S.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Fanikos J.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

The study objective was to determine whether higher antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibody levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are associated with more frequent thrombotic events in patients with clinically suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is an immune-mediated adverse drug reaction. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detects anti-PF4/heparin antibodies to support a suspected clinical diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The utility of quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results is uncertain. Our single-centered study evaluated quantitative anti-PF4/heparin antibody levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in consecutive hospitalized patients with a clinical suspicion of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and positive anti-PF4/heparin antibody levels between July 2003 and December 2006. Overall, anti-PF4/heparin antibody values were available for 318 patients with clinically suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The median level was 0.85 optical density units (range 0.31-4.0). The overall rate of arterial or venous thrombosis was 23.3%. A 1-unit increase in anti-PF4/heparin antibody level was associated with an approximate doubling in the odds of thrombosis by 30 days (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.6; P =.0001). The proportion of patients with pulmonary embolism increased with higher anti-PF4/heparin antibody levels. Higher levels of anti-PF4/heparin antibody are associated with increased thrombosis risk among patients with clinically suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and might have clinical utility for prediction of true heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and the development of thrombosis.


Gabardi S.,Harvard University | Baroletti S.A.,MetroWest Medical Center
Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2010

Everolimus, a proliferation signal inhibitor in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) drug class, has many clinical applications, including in organ transplantation, oncology, and cardiology. It currently has United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for prophylaxis against rejection in de novo renal transplant recipients, treatment of renal cell carcinoma, and use as a drug-eluting stent. To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of everolimus, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1997-April 2010) for all English-language articles of in vitro and in vivo studies that evaluated everolimus, as well as abstracts from recent scientific meetings and the manufacturer. In transplantation, everolimus demonstrates immunosuppressive properties and has been used to prevent acute rejection in cardiac, liver, lung, and renal transplant recipients. It appears that this agent may be potent enough to allow for the minimization or removal of calcineurin inhibitors in the long-term management of renal transplant recipients. In oncology, everolimus has been proven effective for the management of treatment-resistant renal cell carcinoma. In cardiology, everolimus is available as a drug-coated stent and is used in percutaneous coronary interventions for prevention of restenosis. In transplant recipients and patients with renal cell carcinoma, everolimus appears to have an extensive adverse-event profile. The pharmacologic properties of everolimus differentiate this agent from other drugs used in these clinical areas, and its pharmacokinetic properties differentiate it from sirolimus.


Mathew M.C.,MetroWest Medical Center
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Age-related cataract is a major cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Oxidative stress has been implicated in its formation and progression. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has been investigated in this context. To assess the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 2 March 2012. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and ongoing trials and contacted investigators to identify eligible randomized trials. We included only randomized controlled trials in which supplementation with one or more antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E) in any form, dosage or combination for at least one year was compared to another antioxidant vitamin or to placebo. Two authors extracted data and assessed trial quality independently. We pooled results for the primary outcomes, i.e., incidence of cataract and incidence of cataract extraction. We did not pool results of the secondary outcomes - progression of cataract and loss of visual acuity, because of differences in definitions of outcomes and data presentation. We pooled results by type of cataract when data were available. We did not perform a sensitivity analysis. Nine trials involving 117,272 individuals of age 35 years or older are included in this review. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland, India, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States, with duration of follow-up ranging from 2.1 to 12 years. The doses of antioxidant vitamins were higher than the recommended daily allowance. There was no evidence of effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in reducing the risk of cataract, cataract extraction, progression of cataract or in slowing the loss of visual acuity. In the pooled analyses, there was no evidence of effect of beta-carotene supplementation in reducing the risk of cataract (two trials) (relative risk (RR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 1.08; n = 57,703) or in reducing the risk of cataract extraction (three trials) (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.10; n = 86,836) or of vitamin E supplementation in reducing the risk of cataract (three trials) (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04; n = 50,059) or of cataract extraction (five trials) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.05; n = 83,956). The proportion of participants developing hypercarotenodermia (yellowing of skin) while on beta-carotene ranged from 7.4% to 15.8%. There is no evidence from RCTs that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C or vitamin E) prevents or slows the progression of age-related cataract. We do not recommend any further studies to examine the role of antioxidant vitamins beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E in preventing or slowing the progression of age-related cataract. Costs and adverse effects should be weighed carefully with unproven benefits before recommending their intake above recommended daily allowances.


Sood A.,Ford Motor Company | Jeong W.,Ford Motor Company | Ahlawat R.,Medicity | Campbell L.,Ford Motor Company | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery | Year: 2015

Robotic surgery has been eagerly adopted by patients and surgeons alike in the field of urology, over the last decade. However, there is a lack of standardization in training curricula and accreditation guidelines to ensure surgeon competence and patient safety. Accordingly, in this review, we aim to highlight ′who′ needs to learn ′what′ and ′how′, to become competent in robotic surgery. We demonstrate that both novice and experienced open surgeons require supervision and mentoring during the initial phases of robotic surgery skill acquisition. The experienced open surgeons possess domain knowledge, however, need to acquire technical knowledge under supervision (either in simulated or clinical environment) to successfully transition to robotic surgery, whereas, novice surgeons need to acquire both domain as well as technical knowledge to become competent in robotic surgery. With regard to training curricula, a variety of training programs such as academic fellowships, mini-fellowships, and mentored skill courses exist, and cater to the needs and expectations of postgraduate surgeons adequately. Fellowships provide the most comprehensive training, however, may not be suitable to all surgeon-learners secondary to the long-term time commitment. For these surgeon-learners short-term courses such as the mini-fellowships or mentored skill courses might be more apt. Lastly, with regards to credentialing uniformity in criteria regarding accreditation is lacking but earnest efforts are underway. Currently, accreditation for competence in robotic surgery is institutional specific.

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