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Los Angeles, CA, United States

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California is the largest supplier of treated water in the US. The name is usually shortened to the "Metropolitan Water District", "the Met", or simply "MWD". It is a cooperative of 14 cities and 12 municipal water districts that indirectly provides water to 18 million people in its 5,200-square-mile service area. It was created by an act of the California Legislature in 1928, primarily to build and operate the Colorado River Aqueduct. MWD became the first contractor to the State Water Project in 1960.It includes parts of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, Riverside, San Bernardino and Ventura counties. The district covers primarily the coastal and most heavily populated portions of Southern California; however large portions of San Diego, San Bernardino and Riverside counties are located outside of its service area.The MWD headquarters is located at 700 North Alameda Street in downtown Los Angeles, adjacent to Union Station. Wikipedia.

Johnson A.M.,Metropolitan Water District of Southern California | Di Giovanni G.D.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Di Giovanni G.D.,University of Texas at El Paso | Rochelle P.A.,Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Chu W.-H.,Tongji University | Gao N.-Y.,Montclair State University | Deng Y.,Montclair State University | Krasner S.W.,Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
Environmental Science and Technology

Haloacetamides (HAcAms) are an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). However, there is a limited understanding about the precursors of HAcAms. In this study, we screened the precursors of dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), the most commonly identified HAcAm in chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water. DCAcAm formation potential (FP) of raw water samples collected in different months from a reservoir in China was determined during chlorination, and the highest DCAcAm FP typically occurred in the summer samples. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a representative summer raw water sample was separated into six fractions by a series of resin elutions. Among them, hydrophilic acid (HiA) DOM showed the maximum DCAcAm FP, followed by hydrophilic bases (HiB) and, to a much lower extent, hydrophobic acids (HoA). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra revealed that a mass of protein-like substances in the HiA fraction, made up of amino acids (AAs), were the likely DCAcAm precursors. Finally, we investigated the DCAcAm yields of 20 AAs during chlorination. Among them, seven AAs (aspartic acid, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, phenylalanine) could form DCAcAm during chlorination, with the corresponding DCAcAm yields of 0.231, 0.189, 0.153, 0.104, 0.078, 0.058, and 0.050 mmol/mol AA. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Krasner S.W.,Metropolitan Water District of Southern California | Mitch W.A.,Yale University | McCurry D.L.,Yale University | Hanigan D.,Arizona State University | Westerhoff P.,Arizona State University
Water Research

This review summarizes major findings over the last decade related to nitrosamines in drinking water, with a particular focus on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), because it is among the most widely detected nitrosamines in drinking waters. The reaction of inorganic dichloramine with amine precursors is likely the dominant mechanism responsible for NDMA formation in drinking waters. Even when occurrence surveys found NDMA formation in chlorinated drinking waters, it is unclear whether chloramination resulted from ammonia in the source waters. NDMA formation has been associated with the use of quaternary amine-based coagulants and anion exchange resins, and wastewater-impaired source waters. Specific NDMA precursors in wastewater-impacted source waters may include tertiary amine-containing pharmaceuticals or other quaternary amine-containing constituents of personal care products. Options for nitrosamine control include physical removal of precursors by activated carbon or precursor deactivation by application of oxidants, particularly ozone or chlorine, upstream of chloramination. Although NDMA has been the most prevalent nitrosamine detected in worldwide occurrence surveys, it may account for only ~5% of all nitrosamines in chloraminated drinking waters. Other significant contributors to total nitrosamines are poorly characterized. However, high levels of certain low molecular weight nitrosamines have been detected in certain Chinese waters suspected to be impaired by industrial effluents. The review concludes by identifying research needs that should be addressed over the next decade. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chu W.,Tongji University | Gao N.,Tongji University | Krasner S.W.,Metropolitan Water District of Southern California | Templeton M.R.,Imperial College London | Yin D.,Tongji University
Environmental Pollution

The formation of regulated and emerging halogenated carbonaceous (C-) and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) from the chlor(am)ination and UV irradiation of tyrosine (Tyr) was investigated. Increased chlorine contact time and/or Cl 2/Tyr ratio increased the formation of most C-DBPs, with the exception of 4-chlorophenol, dichloroacetonitrile, and dichloroacetamideChloroform and dichloroacetic acid increased with increasing pH, dichloroacetonitrile first increased and then decreased, and other DBPs had maximum yields at pH 7 or 8. The addition of ammonia significantly reduced the formation of most C-DBPs but increased 4-chlorophenol, dichloroacetonitrile, dichloroacetamide, and trichloroacetonitrile yields for short prechlorination contact times before dosing ammonia. When UV irradiation and chlorination were performed simultaneously, the concentrations of the relatively stable C-DBPs increased, and the concentrations of dichloroacetonitrile, dichloroacetamide, and 4-chlorophenol decreased with increasing UV dose. This information was used to develop a mechanistic model for the formation of intermediate DBPs and end products from the interaction of disinfectants with tyrosine. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chu W.,Tongji University | Gao N.,Tongji University | Yin D.,Tongji University | Krasner S.W.,Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
Journal of Hazardous Materials

Haloacetamides (HAcAms) are an emerging class of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern. However, there are very limited data on the formation and speciation of the nine bromine- and chlorine-containing haloacetamides (HAcAm9). In the study, their formation and speciation during chlor(am)ination were investigated for a group of waters with a range of specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm (SUVA254), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and bromide levels. The waters that were the least impacted by anthropogenic pollution had the lowest DON levels, the highest ratios of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to DON, and exhibited the least HAcAm9 formation. DON/DOC may act as an indicator of HAcAm yields during chlorination. HAcAm9 exhibited more formation during chloramination in the low-SUVA waters with no bromide, relative to high-SUVA waters with bromide. The selected waters all formed primarily dihalogenated (di-) HAcAms, followed by trihalogenated (tri-) species and, to a much lesser extent, monohalogenated (mono-) HAcAms. Di-HAcAm formation had similar trends as that of HAcAm9; whereas chloramination formed more mono- and less tri-HAcAms than chlorination. Bromine utilization factors and bromine incorporation factor increased with decreasing and increasing bromide during either chlorination or chloramination, and bromine was easier to incorporate into tri-HAcAms during chloramination than chlorination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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