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News Article | May 3, 2017
Site: www.cnet.com

In case you missed it, the 2017 Met Gala took place Monday night. Apple was there as a sponsor, but it didn't break any iPhone 8 news, and sponsor Warner Bros. didn't break any news on the upcoming "Justice League" movie. The only thing broken, it appears, was the Met Gala's "no selfie rule," which was infringed by none other than Kylie Jenner, plus several other celebs. The annual Costume Institute Benefit at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art marks one of the year's biggest celebrations of art and fashion. This year's theme was Kawakubo/Comme des Garcons, which refers to "avant garde" or over-the-top clothes that cost as much as your car. (Check out some shots from last year's tech-themed event in the gallery below.) Anna Wintour, editor-in-chief of Vogue, instated a ban on all social media at the Met Gala gala in 2015. But while organizers of the gala asked that no one post selfies, 19-year-old Jenner disregarded the "no selfie" policy yet again -- just like she did last year. That's right, celebrities dressed in high-end fashion you want the world to see. Kiss your Snapchat, Instagram, Periscope goodbye, and don't even think about going Facebook Live. But why such a restriction for such a high-profile event? The Costume Institute declined to comment. It makes sense an event like this would want to maintain exclusivity and provide photo ops for distributors like Getty, but could a selfie really hurt? But really, who's going to stop Beyoncé from snapping a shot of her stunning dress? Selfie bans are not unheard of. Two years ago, for example, the Cannes Film Festival clamped down on red-carpet selfies, saying all those smartphone snaps slow things down. Technically Incorrect: Bringing you a fresh and irreverent take on tech. Virtual reality 101: CNET tells you everything you need to know about what VR is and how it'll affect your life.


News Article | April 18, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

"... a wonder of creativity, eclecticism, ideas and dialogue." – Roger Cohen, New York Times "… a celebration of a Pakistan open and engaged with the many ideas of many worlds." – Lyse Doucet, BBC NEW YORK, NY--(Marketwired - April 18, 2017) - The Lahore Literary Festival (LLF), one of South Asia's premier cultural events, returns to Asia Society New York on May 6. This is the second year that the festival, held annually in Lahore, Pakistan, travels to New York. LLF in New York will explore contemporary Pakistan, and feature artists, writers, and commentators. The festival will present American audience with a more nuanced view of Pakistan, with discussions on fiction and nonfiction writing, music, arts, popular culture, and politics. Participants include novelist and opera librettist Mohammed Hanif; MacArthur fellow and contemporary artist Shahzia Sikander; Pulitzer-prize winning composer Du Yun; former Viacom CEO Tom Freston; New York Times literary critic Dwight Garner; Metropolitan Museum of Art curator Navina Najat Haider; Pulitzer-prize winning author Siddhartha Mukherjee; and journalist and foreign policy author Ahmed Rashid. LLF, founded by Razi Ahmed in 2012, aims to reclaim Lahore's cultural significance and influence. A global city under the 12th century Sultanate, a capital of the Mughal Empire under Akbar, and a cradle of the modern Punjabi civilization under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Lahore has fired the imagination of artists for centuries, inspiring global literature and thought from Milton's Paradise Lost to Kipling's Kim to Massenet's Opera Le Roi de Lahore to John Masters' Bhowani Junction. The current program agenda follows. Media interested in learning more or RSVPing to attend LLF in New York should contact Asia Society's press office (pr@asiasociety.org). This program is part of Asia Society's Creative Voices of Muslim Asia initiative. Note: All programming is subject to change and will be held at Asia Society New York. All times denoted in local New York time. 10:30-11:15 am: Is Fake News Crowding Out Real News? 3:15-4:00 pm: Populism and the Global Rise of Strongmen 4:15-5:00 pm: Where Conspiracies are a Pastime: Satire and Escapism in Fiction and Beyond


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: fashionunited.com

The first Monday in May marks the Superbowl of fashion: The Met Gala. Put on by Vogue's long reigning editor-in-chief Anna Wintour, a couple hundred celebrities and fashion industry insiders gather at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on Manhattan's Upper East Side. This year's event was chaired by Wintour, Katy Perry, Pharrell Williams, and Tom Brady and Gisele Bundchen. The subject in question was Comme Des Garçons' designer Rei Kawakubo. Kawakubo is the first living designer to be honored at the Met since Yves Saint Laurent in 1983. While her brand has become world famous, she is known for rarely giving interviews, and being very elusive to the public eye. She has developed a huge following from those who love the Play Comme Des Garçons line to those who have been collecting her runway collection pieces for years, she never sought out for commercial success. After the conclusion of one of her runway shows she once remarked she wanted to scrap the whole thing because she felt she didn't do anything. And yet, a woman who never set out to sell clothes managed to capture the eye of The Met and Wintour, along with the entire fashion industry since 1973, enough to give her the distinction of being one of the lucky designers that costume institute curator Andrew Bolton put on display. The celebrities came out in droves, with surprisingly only so many wearing Comme des Garçons, with red carpet queen Rihanna shutting down the show as usual in an avant garde floral Comme Des Garçons number. What magic did Kawakubo bring that made the exhibit so marvelous? For starters, let's remember that Kawakubo is credited with inventing black. Yes, that might sound crazy but Kawakubo originally started off using no color in her collections, but, rather, opted for black as a color palette. During her 1973 runway show, attendees said you could actually see all the variations of the color black in her clothes. Her personal fandom for the color black was on display with a selection of very gothic and witchy looks. Then came the era of Thierry Mugler, when bright colors dominated the runway, and Kawakubo, to keep in line with the times, did a collection where the dominant color palette was red. When asked why she said, "Red is the new black." For Kawakubo, it was never about trying to selling clothes, rather she sees fashion as art. She recently did an entire collection that featured no fabric, only industrial materials. For this exhibit, it was important that it was not treated as retrospective of her collections over the past 40 years, but rather an homage to the art of in between. Kawakubo plays with the abstract, somewhere in between the realm of fashion and art, that leaves you with more questions after one of her runway shows than before it. To your more fashionable museum goer, you would look at it and ask: is this anti-fashion? Kawakubo, unlike many of her contemporaries, has no formal design training. She studied art and literature at university, and worked as a stylist before she set out to create the now famed Comme Des Garçons brand. Her anti-fashion approach appears to be rooted in the fact that she never aimed to be your traditional fashion industry insider. She was always that woman who was outside of the box. This is reflected in her work and in the exhibit through pieces that gave no attention to the body and were all about protrusions and giving no concern to the human form. Comme Des Garçons has gone through many phases throughout its history, from doing all black, to going red, and in 2012 where they chose to do all white. Perhaps Kawakubo's genius also lies in her ability to be ever changing. She never gets stuck in her ways, as can be seen in her work. Although, there are things that are unique to her design aesthetic, such as the protrusions, playing with portions and lack of concern for wearability or functionality. However, every Comme Des Garçons collection is always uniquely different, all with the goal of Kawakubo trying to do or say something, and if she doesn't think she has, she wants the collection scrapped, though she has never gone that far to actually go through with never selling anything. Through sheer talent and the industry's undying fascination with her, Kawakubo has become one of the most celebrated designers worldwide. Some argue whether she is an artist or a fashion designer, but either way, she is a creator, and create she has. From May 4 until September 4 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, her creations shall be on display for the world to critique, ogle and enjoy.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Since breaking ground in the 80s, browngrotta arts has been carefully curating and exhibiting emerging and established artists who celebrate the exploration of fiber art techniques and who understand the possibilities of soft materials. These are artists who helped to build a whole new field of art – fiber sculpture, art baskets, weaving, plaiting and other related means of fabrication. These became ways to create work for a wall, build a sculpture, conceive an installation or support a performance. And to that end, browngrotta arts has been chartering new waters in art to showcase and provide unique sculptural and mixed media works to the trade for commercial and residential spaces. From the early mid-20th century pioneering days to the newest possibilities in fiber optic art – browngrotta arts’ stable of fiber artists spans five exhilarating decades. browngrotta arts has worked with numerous design and architectural firms including: Clodagh Design, Jean Efron Art Consultants, Powell/Kleinschmidt, Mark Finlay Architect, Fifield/Piaker/Elman Architects PC, Osage Art Consultancy in Hong Kong, Jack Levy Design, ICArt, Lisa Austin & Associates, O’Connor & Associates Art Advisors and Linda Bird, Ltd. “Fiber art is ideal for awkward spaces, solving many specific design problems – which architects and designers appreciate – as a textural counterpoint or even as an acoustical aid,” notes gallery co-owner Tom Grotta. The Art World’s New Material Obsession: Fiber Indeed, fiber art is on fire. Its natural mutable capabilities enable an artist to express exponential creative possibilities in many forms - from wall art to sculptural art as the Wall Street Journal noted in an August 2015 article, The Art World’s New Material Obsession: Fiber. Individual client work features collaborations in architecturally significant homes by Richard Meier, Olson Kundig Architects and Kengo Kuma & Associates. browngrotta arts’ placement of artists’ works includes pieces by Sheila Hicks, Ed Rossbach, Masakazu Kobayashi, Magdalena Abakanowicz and many others in residences, commercial spaces and major museum collections including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Art Museum, the Museum of Arts and Design, the Art Institute of Chicago and the Yale Art Gallery. browngrotta arts kicks off its 2017 milestone celebration with an extensive exhibition at its renowned barn/home in Wilton, CT: Art in the Barn, "Still Crazy After All These Years…30 years in art," Milestone Exhibition in Wilton, CT April 22-30. An Unusual Business Model from the Start Rather than being in the typical gallery, browngrotta arts promotes the work of more than 100, finely curated, contemporary artists from the UK, Asia, Europe and North and South America without a retail space. Instead, browngrotta arts opens its barn/home for 10 days a year… publishing vivid, full-color art catalogs in its basement (48 to date), attending annual art fairs and partnering with public venues such as: browngrotta arts’ 30 years of success can be attributed to three things: first and foremost - the quality of the artists it promotes. Secondly, browngrotta arts’ ability to provide lush but accurate photographs of individual works in catalogs and through its robust digital presence on http://www.browngrotta.com and other social media sites has greatly extended its success. Lastly, browngrotta arts offers virtual installations of works (to scale and with shadow) in their proposed locations – something clients, architects, designers, and architectural librarians find very valuable, explains gallery co-owner Tom Grotta, “Because fiber art is dimensional art, digital placement makes it so much easier to see and experience the art in a home or corporate space,” explains co-owner Tom Grotta. We invite you to attend browngrotta arts’ 30th anniversary kick-off event: Art in the Barn, "Still Crazy After All These Years…30 years in art:" Milestone Exhibition Wilton, CT April 22-30, 2017. For a media invitation to our press previews at 12 p.m. on Sat. April 22 or 9 a.m. on Mon. April 24th, please contact Max Fanwick at 203.434.0179. For more information, call Max Fanwick at 203.434.0179. PR by cbgimagesdesign.com


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

PORTLAND, OR, May 04, 2017-- Wayne Riggs is a celebrated Marquis Who's Who biographee. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Marquis Who's Who, the world's premier publisher of biographical profiles, is proud to name Mr. Riggs a Lifetime Achiever. An accomplished listee, Mr. Riggs celebrates many years' experience in his professional network, and has been noted for achievements, leadership qualities, and the credentials and successes he has accrued in his field.Mr. Riggs currently works as an independent artist. One of his works was featured in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, 11 of his pieces were featured in the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, GA, and 2 pieces were featured in the Tampa Museum of Art. He has enjoyed one-man shows at the Davenport City Gallery and Museum (now The Figge Art Museum), Cornell Fine Arts Museum in Winter Park, CO, F.A.O. (United Nations) in Rome, La Mama Galleria in Spoleto, Italy, the British Embassy in Antigua, and Crocker's Mark Gallery in Raleigh, NC. He also had an exhibition at Artspace in Richmond, VA. He is represented in permanent collections at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, High Museum of Art, The Cornell Fine Arts Museum, Musee d'art Moderne Andre Malraux, Tampa Museum of Art, as well as corporate and private collections.Mr. Riggs holds a BFA in photography from Southern Illinois University, Other positions he held include lecturer at the Cornell Fine Arts Museum and the Museum of Arts and Sciences in Daytona Beach, FL, director of photography at the Callanwolde Fine Arts Center and Callanwolde Foundation, Inc., in Atlanta, GA, undergraduate teacher of Black & White Photography/Darkroom, and guest critic for the Rhode Island School of Design.Articles and reviews of his work have appeared in Savoir Faire, Artweek, Photo M E T R O, No Limits, Art Papers, Tampa Tribune, The Orlando Sentinel, and Zelo Magazine, to name but a handful. Mr. Riggs received grants from the City of Atlanta Office of Cultural Affairs, and the National Endowment for the Arts. He served as a Radioman, Petty Officer, Second Class in the United States Navy from 1968 to 1972.In addition to his status as a Lifetime Achiever, Mr. Riggs has been a featured listee in Who's Who in America.For more information about Wayne Riggs and to view his work, visit http://waynemriggs.com/ About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com


News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.businessoffashion.com

NEW YORK, United States — Anyone who has visited Dover Street Market, the multibrand, museum-like network of retail stores, will find familiarity in the bright, almost-clinical lighting of "Rei Kawakubo/Comme des Garçons: Art of the In-Between," the latest exhibition at the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, and the first to single out a living designer in more than 30 years. All the better to see the mind-bending lumps and bumps, pleats and cinching, stuffed bundles and flat panels of 140 womenswear designs, many of which are displayed quite close to the ground instead of in large-scale diorama boxes. This means that a visitor could reach out and touch several items with little effort. It may have been tempting, but on Monday evening, 550 guests managed to keep their not-so-grimy paws off of the goods, zig-zagging in and around the vignettes with champagne flutes in hand instead. Of course, they were all here for the Met's annual Costume Institute Benefit, also known as The Met Gala, also known as Fashion’s Oscars. Co-chaired in 2017 by Tom Brady, Gisele Bündchen, Katy Perry, Pharrell Williams and Condé Nast artistic director Anna Wintour, who is also a museum trustee, the funds raised by the event — approximately $13.5 million in 2016 —  are more important than ever. In February 2017, director Thomas Campbell resigned after a $40 million deficit forced the museum to cut staff and postpone a $600 million expansion. According to the museum, the party is the main source of funding for the Costume Institute (and the Costume Institute only), which uses those funds to stage exhibitions, publish books, make acquisitions and maintain the facilities. This year’s exhibition is somewhat of a diversion for Andrew Bolton, curator-in-charge of the Costume Institute, whose focus as of late has been sweeping themes — such as China or technology. The examination of Honorary Chair Kawakubo, whose wares question accepted ideas around silhouette and the general purpose of clothes, marks the first of a living designer since Diana Vreeland’s meditation on Yves Saint Laurent in 1983. The fashion world's adoration and admiration for Kawakubo could be wholly felt on the red carpet, where many designers paid subtle homage to her, whether it be the gingham check on Lena Dunham’s Elizabeth Kennedy dress, the red of Katy Perry’s Maison Margiela mourning gown, or Jaden Smith in all-black Louis Vuitton, carrying a bundle of his own hair — bleached braids, gathered together — as an accessory. Kawakubo-designed, petal-like appendages covered Michèle Lamy, who was accompanied by her husband Rick Owens. (Other attendees wearing Comme des Garçons included Rihanna, Caroline Kennedy, Tracee Ellis Ross, Pharrell and his wife, Helen Lasichanh and Sofía Sanchez de Betak.) “[Kawakubo] is an example of somebody who has a very good relationship with her ID,” Owens told BoF during the cocktail hour, joking that Lamy’s own Comme des Garçons archive was as big as the house’s. “We have too many clichés in fashion. Something like this [exhibition] reminds us that there are other options.” The idea that Kawakubo is a “designer’s designer” helps to explain why she was a natural choice for Bolton, and a natural choice to be honoured at an event that above all celebrates the fashion industry. “Whether it’s Nicolas Ghesquière or Marc Jacobs ... she’s such an icon and a heroine,” Wintour told BoF at a press preview on Monday morning, following remarks from Bolton and Honorary Chair Kennedy, who served as the the American ambassador to Japan from 2013 to 2017. “None of them can believe she has actually come, because she’s such a mystery woman.” But while the Comme worshippers turned out in very respectable droves, there were other sorts of statements on the red carpet. For instance, AirBnb co-founder Joe Gebbia attended with Park Yeon-mi, the North Korean defector and human-rights activist whose 2015 memoir “In Order to Live: A North Korean Girl's Journey to Freedom” documented her family’s escape from the country, which has recently taken to ballistic missile testing, with threats of pre-emptive strikes against the United States looming. The intention, according to Gebbia, was to use the power of the Met’s promenade — which provides plenty of visual content, and traffic, for fashion publications far beyond Vogue.com — in a meaningful way. While Kawakubo herself is not outwardly political — “She’s almost interested in politics,” her husband Adrian Joffe told BoF’s Tim Blanks in a recent interview — her subversive, unapologetic creativity lends itself to weightier statements. “She’s fearless, and she’s not worrying about what’s commercial and what’s going to sell. It’s a real, true aesthetic,” Wintour said. And yet, while the exhibition’s outfits — meticulously numbered so that the rigid among us may follow in exact sequence — may be more art than commerce, Comme des Garçons is a wildly successful business, one whose brand extensions have made it a household name in certain parts of the world and generates revenue of over $280 million a year. Like any major museum show, there will be a shop set up as guests exit, albeit a shop filled with exclusive products, including Nike trainers, t-shirts and leather zip pouches. It could be argued that it’s the combination of the creative and commercial that will help to guarantee the exhibition's success, although Wintour sees it differently. “To me, we were really focusing on her creativity and her dream and her point of view. It’s not about a t-shirt,” she said. “[Kawakubo’s business accomplishments] just show that you can be both creative and successful.” Now, as the museum readies itself for the official opening on May 4, the work of attracting visitors begins. Since the recession, other New York institutions have emerged as competitors to the Metropolitan for funding and audiences, and exhibitions with broad appeal like those of the Costume Institute help the museum retain its edge. Wintour believes that many will attend out of “fascination, admiration, interest, curiosity, something that will be provoking, very transgressive, very progressive.” And she added, “If you’re not a fashion obsessive, you’re going to be incredibly baffled. But art should do all of those things.” Is the Met Ball Becoming Fashion's Biggest PR Platform?


Centeno S.A.,Metropolitan Museum of Art
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2016

The aim of the present article is to highlight publications that illustrate some advances in the application of Raman spectroscopy to investigate materials typically observed in manuscripts, drawings, prints, and paintings in museums' and cultural institutions' collections, and to discuss some of the challenges and future prospects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Chemical Measurement & Imaging | Award Amount: 481.90K | Year: 2010

With support from the Chemical Measurement and Imaging program, Julie Arslanoglu of New Yorks Metropolitan Museum, of Art and John Loike of Columbia University seek to develop and improve methodologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection, identification, and localization of proteins and gums in art. Identification of these diverse biological materials (found in paints, coatings, and adhesives) will improve understanding essential for informed treatment, preservation, and authentication. The approaches developed will improve specificity in identification, enabling for example distinction between use of whole egg or only egg white as a gilding adhesive, or the use of sturgeon?s glue or goat?s milk explicitly as a paint binder. Parallel mass spectrometric studies should enable identification of specific targets for improved characterization, and aptamer technology is being used to identify organic molecules in art. The complementary nature of these techniques is being explored. Finally, the localization of proteins and polysaccharide in paint or coating layers in cross-sections is being characterized using Surface Enhanced Raman (SERS)-labeled antibodies. This will greatly enhance knowledge of an artist?s technique as well as conservation treatment.

In addition to important insights into the preservation and authentication of cultural heritage objects, methods developed in these studies should contribute to other fields affected by similar limitations (low concentration of highly degraded organic materials with interfering inorganic ions), such as environmental monitoring or forensic analysis. The research entails teaching and training of students and postdocs interested in the science of preservation of cultural heritage. Results will be widely disseminated to the general public through websites and presentations in the museum setting, as well as scholarly conferences and publications.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Chemical Measurement & Imaging | Award Amount: 378.69K | Year: 2011

With support from the Chemical Measurement and Imaging program in the Division of Chemistry, Dr. Silvia Centeno of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Prof. Cecil Dybowski of the University of Delaware, will study the mechanism of aggregation of lead carboxylates (lead soaps) in oil paintings. Aggregation of lead carboxylates in oil paintings is known to lead to the formation of protrusions and paint loss in most cases, and to increased transparency of the paint films in others, resulting in damage to the integrity of the artworks. While widely observed, the phenomenon is not well understood. The collaborating investigators, their students and postdoctoral trainees will determine the structure, molecular dynamics, and phase behavior of lead carboxylates using solid state 13C,207Pb magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 1H-207Pb and 13C-207Pb dipolar re-coupling experiments, and deuterium NMR along with other analytical tools. They will elucidate the mechanism of aggregate formation/migration and based on the results, recommend procedures to arrest the deterioration process of oil paintings.

The solid state NMR experiments have the potential to transform the field of cultural heritage science since they will provide molecular information, which is not currently available to the cultural heritage science community. The experiments are a gateway to the application of emerging minimally invasive NMR methods like micro-MAS NMR to study cultural heritage objects. Advancing the state of the art for 207Pb solid-state NMR also has broader implications for understanding the structure of lead-containing electronic and optoelectronic materials, high-Tc superconducting materials, and the speciation and reaction of lead in environmentally contaminated materials. The project will provide excellent training opportunities to students and postdoctoral researchers who wish to train in state of the art solid state NMR methods and cultural heritage science. Results of this study will be widely disseminated to the public through museum programs and publications.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SOLID STATE & MATERIALS CHEMIS | Award Amount: 295.00K | Year: 2016

Non-technical Abstract
Irreplaceable masterworks of art dating from the 14th century through the 20th century are slowly deteriorating due to chemical reactions among the paint components. One step believed to be important in this complex process is the movement of ions and molecules through the paint. In this project, the dynamics and transport of materials such as water and solvents in paint films are examined to determine (1) the nature of the process, and (2) what factors affect this process. Paint films are complex materials, and they must be studied with multiple techniques to characterize the processes as completely as possible. With the support from the Solid State and Materials Chemistry program in the Division of Materials Research and the Chemical Measurement and Imaging program in the Division of Chemistry, the ongoing collaboration between the University of Delaware and The Metropolitan Museum of Art to address the deterioration of paintings with modern technologies is expanded by the involvement of scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide additional unique analyses of materials prepared at The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the University of Delaware and of microscopic samples removed works of art affected, to provide answers to questions like Why and how does this process occur? and What types of actions can be taken to minimize or eliminate these processes that ultimately destroy priceless art objects? The project, through outreach carried out by The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the University of Delaware, provides the public with a tangible connection between scientific discovery and the elements of culture and history, at the same time as it develops an understanding of complex chemical processes that affect more than just paintings.

Technical Abstract
The reaction of heavy-metal-containing pigments with fatty acids in oil paintings, derived from the oil paint binders, produces metal carboxylates also called soaps. These soaps may produce disfiguring inclusions, surface crusts and/or increased transparency of the paints, resulting in unwanted and ultimately deleterious effects. Most oil paintings suffer from this process to some degree. From a scientific perspective, the process consists of a series of steps: (1) production of free fatty acids by hydrolysis of the oil; (2) migration of acids and pigment-derived ions; (3) the reactive event; and (4) agglomeration of the products to produce soap aggregates or migration to the paint film surface to produce crusts. Each step is important and complex, in part due to the heterogeneity of the material. This project focuses on the dynamics of materials in the paint films, predominantly characterizing step 2, but the dynamics are also important as materials like water and solvents, sometimes from restoration interventions, and environmental effects may be involved in steps 1 and 4. Additionally, because these materials are heterogeneous, one must simultaneously consider the effects of properties such as pigment particle size and shape, and porosity of the paint in understanding the nature of these process. This can only be achieved by a multi-pronged approach to characterize samples treated in different ways. By combining the strengths of the Metropolitan Museum, the University of Delaware together with expertise at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory, several sophisticated technologies are directed towards understanding the process. The novel strategy proposed to study a complex heterogeneous multilayered system is applicable to the characterization of analogous problems in the field of soft matter science.

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