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Micallef I.N.M.,Mayo Medical School | Maurer M.J.,Mayo Medical School | Wiseman G.A.,Mayo Medical School | Nikcevich D.A.,Duluth Community Clinical Oncology Program | And 6 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Approximately 60% of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) are curable with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemoimmunotherapy. Epratuzumab (E) is an unlabeled anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody with efficacy in relapsed DLBCL. This phase 2 trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining E with R-CHOP (ER-CHOP) in untreated DLBCL. A secondary aim was to assess the efficacy of interim positron emission tomography (PET) to predict outcome in DLBCL. Standard R-CHOP with the addition of E 360 mg/m 2 intravenously was administered for 6 cycles. Atotal of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. Toxicity was similar to standard R-CHOP. Overall response rate in the 81 eligible patients was 96% (74% CR/CRu) by computed tomography scan and 88% by PET. By intention to treat analysis, at a median follow-up of 43 months, the eventfree survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in all 107 patients were 70% and 80%, respectively. Interim PET was not associated with EFS or OS. Comparison with a cohort of 215 patients who were treated with R-CHOP showed an improved EFS in the ER-CHOP patients. ER-CHOP is well tolerated and results appear promising as a combination therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00301821. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.


Kottschade L.A.,Mayo Medical School | Suman V.J.,Mayo Medical School | Amatruda III T.,Metro Minnesota Community Clinical Oncology Program | McWilliams R.R.,Mayo Medical School | And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: There is increasing evidence that paclitaxel and carboplatin are clinically active in the treatment of metastatic melanoma (MM). ABI-007 is an albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel that has demonstrated single-agent activity against metastatic melanoma. Methods: A parallel phase II trial was conducted in patients with unresectable stage IV melanoma who were either chemotherapy naive (CN) or previously treated (PT). The treatment regimen consisted of ABI-007 (100 mg/m2) and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC2) administered on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. The primary aim of this study was objective response rate (RECIST). Results: Seventy-six patients (41 CN and 35 PT) were enrolled between November 2006 and July 2007. Three patients withdrew consent prior to starting treatment. The median number of treatment cycles was 4. There were 10 (25.6%) responses (1 complete response [CR] and 9 partial responses [PRs]) in the CN cohort (90% CI, 16.7%-42.3%) and 3 (8.8%) responses (3 PRs) in the PT cohort (90% CI, 2.5%-21.3%). Median progression-free survival was 4.5 months in the CN cohort and 4.1 months in the PT cohort. Median overall survival (OS) was 11.1 months in the CN group and 10.9 months in the PT group. Severe toxicities in both groups (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects v.3.0 ≥grade 3) included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, neurosensory problems, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Conclusions: The weekly combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin appears to be moderately well tolerated, with promising clinical activity as therapy in patients who are chemotherapy naive and with modest antitumor activity in those previously treated. © 2010 American Cancer Society.


Kottschade L.A.,Mayo Medical School | Sloan J.A.,Mayo Medical School | Mazurczak M.A.,Siouxland Hematology Oncology | Johnson D.B.,Wichita Community Clinical Oncology | And 6 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2011

Background Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) continues to be a substantial problem for many cancer patients. Pursuant to promising appearing pilot data, the current study evaluated the use of vitamin E for the prevention of CIPN. Methods A phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study was conducted in patients undergoing therapy with neurotoxic chemotherapy, utilizing twice daily dosing of vitamin E (400 mg)/placebo. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade 2+ sensory neuropathy (SN) toxicity (CTCAE v 3.0) in each treatment arm, analyzed by chi-square testing. Planned sample size was 100 patients per arm to provide 80% power to detect a difference in incidence of grade 2+ SN toxicity from 25% in the placebo group to 10% in the vitamin E group. Results Two-hundred seven patients were enrolled between December 1, 2006 and December 14, 2007, producing 189 evaluable cases for analysis. Cytotoxic agents included taxanes (109), cisplatin (8), carboplatin (2), oxaliplatin (50), or combination (20). There was no difference in the incidence of grade 2+ SN between the two arms (34%- vitamin E, 29%-placebo; P=0.43). There were no significant differences between treatment arms for time to onset of neuropathy (P=0.58), for chemotherapy dose reductions due to neuropathy (P=0.21), or for secondary endpoints derived from patient-reported neuropathy symptom assessments. The treatment was well tolerated overall. Conclusions Vitamin E did not appear to reduce the incidence of sensory neuropathy in the studied group of patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Carvajal R.D.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Carvajal R.D.,Cornell University | Sosman J.A.,Vanderbilt University | Quevedo J.F.,Mayo Medical School | And 30 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE: Uveal melanoma is characterized by mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, resulting in mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of selumetinib, a selective, non-adenosine triphosphate competitive inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2, in uveal melanoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial comparing selumetinib vs chemotherapy conducted from August 2010 through December 2013 among 120 patients with metastatic uveal melanoma at 15 academic oncology centers in the United States and Canada. INTERVENTIONS: One hundred one patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive selumetinib, 75mg orally twice daily on a continual basis (n = 50), or chemotherapy (temozolomide, 150mg/m 2 orally daily for 5 of every 28 days, or dacarbazine, 1000 mg/m 2 intravenously every 21 days [investigator choice]; n = 51) until disease progression, death, intolerable adverse effects, or withdrawal of consent. After primary outcome analysis, 19 patients were registered and 18 treated with selumetinib without randomization to complete the planned 120-patient enrollment. Patients in the chemotherapy group could receive selumetinib at the time of radiographic progression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Progression-free survival, the primary end point, was assessed as of April 22, 2013. Additional end points, including overall survival, response rate, and safety/toxicity, were assessed as of December 31, 2013. RESULTS: Median progression-free survival among patients randomized to chemotherapy was 7 weeks (95% CI, 4.3-8.4 weeks; median treatment duration, 8 weeks; interquartile range [IQR], 4.3-16 weeks) and among those randomized to selumetinib was 15.9 weeks (95% CI, 8.4-21.1 weeks; median treatment duration, 16.1 weeks; IQR, 8.1-25.3 weeks) (hazard ratio,0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.71; P < .001). Median overall survival time was 9.1 months (95% CI, 6.1-11.1 months) with chemotherapy and 11.8 months (95% CI, 9.8-15.7 months) with selumetinib (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.41-1.06; P = .09). No objective responses were observed with chemotherapy. Forty-nine percent of patients treated with selumetinib achieved tumor regression, with 14% achieving an objective radiographic response to therapy. Treatment-related adverse events were observed in 97% of patients treated with selumetinib, with 37% requiring at least 1 dose reduction. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this hypothesis-generating study of patients with advanced uveal melanoma, selumetinib compared with chemotherapy resulted in a modestly improved progression-free survival and response rate; however, no improvement in overall survival was observed. Improvement in clinical outcomes was accompanied by a high rate of adverse events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01143402 Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Jean-Pierre P.,University of Miami | Jean-Pierre P.,University of Rochester | Morrow G.R.,University of Rochester | Roscoe J.A.,University of Rochester | And 7 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue is a debilitating symptom affecting psychosocial functioning and quality of life in 70% to 100% of cancer patients during and after treatment. The authors examined the effect of 200 mg of modafinil daily on the severity of cancer-related fatigue. METHODS: The authors conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3, clinical trial to examine the effect of modafinil on patient-reported fatigue in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. A sample of 877 cancer patients beginning chemotherapy at 23 geographically separate University of Rochester Cancer Center (URCC) Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) affiliates were assessed for fatigue. Patients who reported fatigue (N = 867) were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mg of oral modafinil (Provigil) daily or a placebo. Treatment began on Day 5 of Cycle 2 and ended after Day 7 of Cycle 4. Fatigue and depression were assessed during Cycles 2 to 4 by using psychometrically valid measures. Group differences (treatment vs control) in the worst level of fatigue during the previous week at Cycle 4 were examined by using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusting for baseline fatigue (Cycle 2). RESULTS: There were 631 patients (315 modafinil, 316 placebo) who provided evaluable data. ANCOVA showed a significant interaction between treatment condition and baseline fatigue (P = .017), where patients with severe baseline fatigue (n = 458) benefited from modafinil, whereas patients with mild or moderate fatigue did not. Modafinil had no statistically significant effect on depression (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Modafinil may be useful in controlling cancer-related fatigue in patients who present with severe fatigue but is not useful in patients with mild or moderate fatigue. © 2010 American Cancer Society.


PubMed | Washington University in St. Louis, University of Michigan, Mount Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Chicago and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2017

CRA9003 Background: Gq/11 mutations are early oncogenic events in UM resulting in MAPK pathway activation. We demonstrated decreased viability in UM cell lines harboring Gq/11 mut with sel, a small molecule inhibitor of MEK1/2 (Ambrosini, CCR 2012).We conducted a 16 center randomized phase II study of hyd-sulfate sel 75 mg BID vs TMZ 150 mg/m80 pts were randomized. Sel (n=39): median age 66 (range 32-86), 54% male, 54% G11 mut, median ECOG PS 0 (range 0-1), 97% M1c, median prior tx 0 (range 0-2). TMZ (n=41): median age 60 (range 34-81), 63% male, 58% G11 mut, median ECOG PS 0 (range 0-1), 93% M1c, median prior tx 0 (range 0-2). 11/39 (28%) pts on sel experienced grade (gr) 3 toxicity (tox) manageable with dose modification (5 CPK elevation, 3 LFT elevation, 1 rash, 1 lymphopenia, 1 edema). 1/41 (2%) pt on TMZ experienced gr 3 tox (neutropenia). No gr 4/5 tox occurred. 28 pts on sel underwent paired tumor biopsies with inhibition of pERK and cyclinD1 observed by Western blot at day 14. At interim analysis (9/25/12), 55 pts were evaluable with 45 progression events and 16 deaths. Sel (n=27): median PFS 16 wks (95% CI 8-30.9), RR 11%, median OS 11.8 months (95% CI 4.8-not reached). TMZ (n=28): median PFS 4 wks (95% CI 3.7-15), RR 0%, median OS 4.7 months (95% CI 4.3-14.3). TMZsel (n=25): median PFS 8.1 wks (95% CI 7-15), RR 0%.Sel is the first drug to ever show improved clinical activity in UM relative to TMZ. Sustained target inhibition is observed with sel. Final results will be presented.NCT01143402.


Miller R.C.,Mayo Medical School | Schwartz D.J.,Minneapolis Radiation Oncology | Sloan J.A.,Mayo Medical School | Griffin P.C.,Upstate Carolina Community Clinic Oncology Program | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: A two-arm, double-blind, randomized trial was performed to evaluate the effect of 0.1% mometasone furoate (MMF) on acute skin-related toxicity in patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast carcinoma who were undergoing external beam radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall were randomly assigned to apply 0.1% MMF or placebo cream daily. The primary study endpoint was the provider-assessed maximal grade of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, radiation dermatitis. The secondary endpoints included provider-assessed Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or greater radiation dermatitis and adverse event monitoring. The patient-reported outcome measures included the Skindex-16, the Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool, a Symptom Experience Diary, and a quality-of-life self-assessment. An assessment was performed at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and for 2 weeks after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 176 patients were enrolled between September 21, 2007, and December 7, 2007. The provider-assessed primary endpoint showed no difference in the mean maximum grade of radiation dermatitis by treatment arm (1.2 for MMF vs. 1.3 for placebo; p = .18). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity was greater in the placebo group (p = .04), primarily from pruritus. For the patient-reported outcome measures, the maximum Skindex-16 score for the MMF group showed less itching (p = .008), less irritation (p = .01), less symptom persistence or recurrence (p = .02), and less annoyance with skin problems (p = .04). The group's maximal Skin Toxicity Assessment Tool score showed less burning sensation (p = .02) and less itching (p = .002). Conclusion: Patients receiving daily MMF during radiotherapy might experience reduced acute skin toxicity compared with patients receiving placebo. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Jatoi A.,Mayo Medical School | Thrower A.,Cedar Rapids Oncology Project CCOP | Sloan J.A.,Mayo Medical School | Flynn P.J.,Metro Minnesota Community Clinical Oncology Program | And 7 more authors.
Oncologist | Year: 2010

Purpose. Rash occurs in >50% of patients prescribed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. This study was undertaken to determine whether sunscreen prevents or mitigates these rashes. Methods. This placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled rash-free patients starting an EGFR inhibitor. Patients were randomly assigned to sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 60 applied twice a day for 28 days versus placebo. They were then monitored for rash and quality of life (Skindex-16) during the 4-week intervention and for an additional 4 weeks. Results. Fifty-four patients received sunscreen, and 56 received placebo; the arms were balanced at baseline. During the 4-week intervention, physician-reported rash occurred in 38 (78%) and 39 (80%) sunscreentreated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 1.00); no significant differences in rash rates emerged over the additional 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in rash severity, and patient-reported outcomes of rash yielded similar conclusions. Adjustment for sun intensity by geographical zone, season, and use of photosensitivity medications did not yield a significant difference in rash across study arms (p =.20). Quality of life scores declined but remained comparable between arms. Conclusions. Sunscreen, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent or attenuate EGFR inhibitor-induced rash. © AlphaMed Press.


Uhm J.H.,Mayo Medical School | Ballman K.V.,Mayo Medical School | Wu W.,Mayo Medical School | Giannini C.,Mayo Medical School | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2011

Purpose: Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represents one of the most frequent gene alterations in glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, we evaluated gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, in the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed GBM. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight patients (96 evaluable) were accrued between May 18, 2001, and August 2, 2002. All were newly diagnosed GBM patients who were clinically and radiographically stable/improved after radiation treatment (enrollment within 5 weeks of radiation completion). No prior chemotherapy was permitted. EGFR amplification/mutation, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, was not required for treatment with gefitinib but was studied when tissues were available. Gefitinib was administered at 500 mg each day; for patients receiving dexamethasone or enzyme-inducing (CYP3A4) agents, dose was escalated to a maximum of 1,000 mg QD. Treatment cycles were repeated at 4-week intervals with brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-week intervals. Results: Overall survival (OS; calculated from time of initial surgery) at 1 year (primary end point) with gefitinib was 54.2%, which was not statistically different compared with that of historical control population (48.9%, data from three previous Phase III North Central Cancer Treatment Group studies of newly diagnosed GBM patients). Progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 year post-RT (16.7%) was also not significantly different to that of historical controls (30.3%). Clinical outcome was not affected by EGFR status (amplification or vIII mutation). Fatigue (41%), rash (62%), and loose stools (58%) constituted the most frequent adverse events, the majority of these being limited to Grade 1/2. Of note, the occurrence of drug-related adverse effects, such as loose stools was associated with improved OS. Conclusions: In our evaluation of nearly 100 patients with newly diagnosed GBM, treatment with adjuvant gefitinib post-radiation was not associated with significant improvement in OS or PFS. However, patients who experienced gefitinib-associated adverse effects (rash/diarrhea) did demonstrate improved OS. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Galanis E.,Mayo Medical School | Anderson S.K.,Mayo Medical School | Lafky J.M.,Mayo Medical School | Uhm J.H.,Mayo Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: We hypothesized that vertical blockade of VEGF signaling by combining bevacizumab with sorafenib in patients with recurrent glioblastoma would result in a synergistic therapeutic effect. We also investigated whether VEGF, VEGFR2 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), circulating biomarkers of angiogenesis, and MRI markers such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are correlated with treatment efficacy and/or toxicity. Experimental Design: Patients received bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks) with sorafenib (200 mg twice a day, weekly, days 1-5; group A). Due to toxicity, the starting sorafenib dose was subsequently modified to 200 mg every day (group B). Results: Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 19 patients in group A and 35 in group B. Objective response rate was 18.5% with median duration of 6.7 months (range 0.5-24.1 months). Six-month progression-free survival (PFS6) was 20.4% (11/54), and median overall survival (OS) was 5.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.7-8.2]; outcome was similar between the two dose groups. We identified SNPs in the VEGF and VEGFR2 promoter regions, which were associated with PFS6 (P < 0.022). Among molecular markers of angiogenesis, a higher log2 baseline level of stromal cell-derived factor-1 was associated with PFS6 success (P = 0.04). Circulating endothelial cells decreased during treatment with subsequent increase at disease progression (P = 0.022). Imaging analysis showed a trend associating ADC-L with poor outcome. Conclusions: The bevacizumab/sorafenib combination did not improve outcome of patients with recurrent glioblastoma versus historic bevacizumab-treated controls. Biologic markers of response and resistance to bevacizumab in gliomas were identified which merit prospective validation. ©2013 AACR.

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