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Sarkar S.,Metro Dairy Ltd | Misra A.K.,West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences
British Food Journal | Year: 2010

Purpose: Prophylactic characteristics of plain acidophilus milk could be further enhanced with the incorporation of certain probiotic or beneficial organisms. This research undertakes to evaluate the technological and dietetic characteristics of probiotic acidophilus milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. s hermanii during storage. Design/methodology/approach: The effects of incorporation of Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. s hermanii MTCC 1371 as microbial additives during the manufacture and storage of acidophilus milk made from skimmed milk at 8±1 °C for seven days were evaluated. Probiotic acidophilus milk was evaluated on the basis of various technological (titratable acidity, volatile acidity, diacetyl and acetoin production and extent of proteolysis) and dietetic (lactic acid content, lactose hydrolyzing activity, antibacterial activity, viable population of lactobacilli, propionibacteria, bifidobacteria) characteristics. Findings: Probiotic acidophilus milk obtained with the conjugated application of Lactobacillus acidophilus R, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI retained its dietetic characteristics up to seven days of storage at 8±1 °C and its consumption may be advantageous over plain acidophilus milk due to its enhanced prophylactic features. Research limitations/implications: Mineral and vitamin estimation of probiotic acidophilus milk, animal and infant feeding trials must be conducted. Practical implications: Conjugated application of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI as microbial additives during the manufacture of acidophilus milk may be suggested to enhance its prophylactic features. Originality/value: Conjugated application of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and B. bifidum NDRI as microbial additives with L. acidophilus R during the manufacture of acidophilus milk is suggested to enhance the prophylactic features of plain acidophilus milk. Consumption of probiotic acidophilus milk as a dietary adjunct can be recommended. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Sarkar S.,Metro Dairy Ltd
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2013

Purpose: Probiotics confer protection against pathogens owing to their capability to compete with pathogens or their displacement by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells. Diverse health benefits extended by probiotics led to their application as functional foods. The aim of this paper is to explore probiotics as functional foods. Design/methodology/approach: Endeavour has been made to explore prerequisites for a cultured milk product to be called as a probiotics food. Potentiality of probiotics for their exploitation as functional foods has also been delineated. Findings: Probiotics demonstrate various prophylactic properties and their efficacy are influenced by strain of cultures employed. Probiotics confer diverse human health benefits such as normalization of intestinal flora, anticarcinogenesis, hypocholesterolemic effect, alleviation of lactose malabsorption and allergy. Beneficial properties of probiotics suggest their application as functional foods. Originality/value: Ingestion of cultured milk products containing probiotic cultures may provide health benefits and could be recommended for consumption as functional foods. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Sarkar S.,Metro Dairy Ltd
British Food Journal | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to attempt to highlight various approaches for enhancing the viability of probiotics, with special emphasis on micro-encapsulation. Design/methodology/approach: Various techniques, such as selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable packaging materials, two-step fermentation, stress adaptation, inclusion of micro-nutrient, sonication of bacteria and micro-encapsulation, which could be employed for maintaining or enhancing probiotic viability are discussed, with special emphasis on micro-encapsulation. Findings: Probiotics lose their viability during gastro-intestinal transit due to unfavorable intestinal environment. Amongst diverse techniques micro-encapsulation could confer protection to the probiotics both in the product as well as in the gastro-intestinal environment. Originality/value: The paper shows that micro-encapsulation of probiotics renders them stable both in the product as well as in the intestinal environment and application of encapsulated probiotics would result in a product with greater prophylactic activities. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Sarkar S.,Metro Dairy Ltd
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2014

Purpose: Breast milk is considered as the most ideal food for infants during infancy owing to its diverse nutritional and therapeutic attributes. In the absence of breast milk, infants may be offered with cow's, buffalo's or goat's milk after modification to bring their composition nearer to human milk. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: Risks associated with prolonged and exclusive breast feeding or unmodified cow's, buffalo's or goat's milk have been highlighted. In the absence of human milk, the suitability of modified cow's, buffalo's or goat's milk as a supplementary food for infants is also justified. Findings: Breast milk is the most preferred food for infants owing to its numerous intrinsic therapeutic and nutritional attributes. Human milk is virtually impossible to mimic completely, and therefore, goat's milk is often preferred over cow's milk or buffalo's milk due to its better digestibility, higher biological value and less allergenic. An appropriate blending of protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals and vitamins to cow's, buffalo's or goat's milk to result in modified milk, nutritionally adequate for infants is suggested. Originality/value: Nutritional and therapeutic attributes of cow's, buffalo's or goat's milk must be suitably modified to meet the physiological needs as well as to confer protection to the infants. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Sarkar S.,Metro Dairy Ltd
International Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Milk is an ideal medium for the growth and multiplication of diverse microorganisms resulting in its early deterioration. Consumption of raw milk should be discouraged, as numerous epidemiological outbreaks even death have been recorded. Amongst various methods, pasteurization is the widely adopted technology to render milk safe for human consumption. Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk is resultant of various factors including quality of raw milk, heat-treatment employed, storage conditions and extent of post-pasteurization contamination. In the present endeavor, attempts have been made to highlight microbiological considerations for the safety of pasteurized milk. Endeavour has been made to explore various factors affecting the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk and hygienic practices to be implemented for quality improvement. Reviewed literature indicated that to ensure safe pasteurized milk, an improvement in the microbiological quality of raw milk, proper pasteurization and prevention of post-pasteurization contamination is important. Introduction of microfiltration prior to pasteurization is suggested to ensure complete removal of spores thereby enhancing the microbiological safety of pasteurized milk. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.


Sarkar S.,Metro Dairy Ltd
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2013

Purpose: Early colonization and balance between the beneficial and pathogenic organisms are essential for good nutrition and health. Ability of probiotic cultures to survive and colonize under the intestinal environmental condition led to their application as functional foods. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach: Endeavour has been made to explore the mechanism of gut colonization, selection criteria for probiotic cultures, mechanism of probiotic action, postulated health benefits and prerequisites of a probiotics food. Findings: Probiotic organisms influence the physiological and pathological process of the host by modifying the intestinal microbiota, thereby affecting human health. Postulated health beneficial properties of probiotics suggest their application as functional foods. Originality/value: Ingestion of cultured milk products containing probiotic cultures may provide health benefits in terms of colonization and normalization of intestinal flora and could be recommended for consumption as functional foods. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Sarkar S.,Metro Dairy Ltd
British Food Journal | Year: 2013

Purpose: Increased evidence for the health benefits of probiotics for health restoration coupled with the consumer's inclination towards a safe, natural and cost-effective substitute for drugs have led application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent and are rapidly moving in clinical usage. In this context, this article attempts to highlight the potential of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent. Design/methodology/approach: Endeavor has been made to explore the significance of probiotics for the modulation of gut ecology and their action. Potentiality of probiotics for their exploitation as a pharmaceutical agent has also been justified. Limitations of probiotic therapy and the various considerations for probiotic therapy have also been delineated. Findings: Probiotic organisms influence the physiological and pathological process of the host by modifying the intestinal microbiota, thereby affecting human health. Beneficial effects of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent seem to be strain and dose dependent and more efficacious with their early introduction. Combination of various probiotics proved to be more efficacious than single strain for exhibiting prophylactic activities. Research limitations/implications: Reviewed literature indicated that it is difficult to generalize for the beneficial effect of all probiotics for all types of diseases as efficacy of probiotics is strain-dependent and dose-dependent and its clinical application needs long-term investigations. Practical implications: Clinical trials have displayed that probiotics may alleviate certain disorders or diseases in humans especially those related to gastro-intestinal tract. Originality/value: Ingestion of fermented dairy products containing probiotic cultures may provide health benefits in certain clinical conditions such as antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, rotavirus-associated diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, allergenic diseases, cancer, Helicobacter pylori infection and lactose-intolerance. Application of probiotics as a pharmaceutical agent is recommended. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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