The University Of Texas System and Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Date: 2014-03-27
The present invention provides methods and compositions for the nanotechnology-based therapy of one or more mammalian diseases. Disclosed are gold-in-porous silicon nanoassemblies that are effective in the targeted and localized treatment of one or more human hyperproliferative disorders, including, for example, cancer of the breast. Methods of systemic administration of these nanoassembly vectors are disclosed that facilitate direct thermal ablative therapy of selected tissues using a localized application of near-infrared energy to the target site, wherein the gold-in-porous silicon nanoparticles release heat to destroy the surrounding cancerous tissue.
Jaganathan H.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute |
Godin B.,Methodist Hospital Research Institute
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2012
Silicon is one of the most abundant chemical elements found on the Earth. Due to its unique chemical and physical properties, silicon based materials and their oxides (e.g. silica) have been used in several industries such as building and construction, electronics, food industry, consumer products and biomedical engineering/medicine. This review summarizes studies on effects of silicon and silica nano- and micro-particles on cells and organs following four main exposure routes, namely, intravenous, pulmonary, dermal and oral. Further, possible genotoxic effects of silica based nanoparticles are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on improving and standardizing biocompatibility assessment for nano- and micro-particles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Date: 2015-06-12
Disclosed are methods and compositions for the detection of one or more different types of cellular biomarkers in a biological sample, and in particular, methods and compositions for the rapid, one-step, highly-cell specific detection of circulating tumor cells from minute quantities of mammalian biological fluids, including, for example, from a single drop of human blood. In certain embodiments, distinctly-labeled, multi-aptamer detection reagents are provided for detecting and quantitating selected cancer cells in clinical samples such as patient specimens and/or tissues. Aptamer-based imaging methodologies are also provided for use in a variety of diagnostic assay protocols.
Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Date: 2015-05-22
Improved methods for detecting active tuberculosis are disclosed. A method comprises enriching at least one M. tuberculosis-specific biomolecule from a sample by contacting the sample with a nanoporous film; and detecting the presence of the M. tuberculosis-specific biomolecule or fragment(s) thereof. The method may further comprise digesting the enriched M. tuberculosis-specific biomolecule with an enzyme to produce a digestion product comprising at least one fragment of the M. tuberculosis-specific biomolecule. Improved sensitivity and speed achieved.
Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Date: 2014-04-30
Disclosed are compound for targeting chemotherapeutic agents to mammalian mitochondria. Also disclosed are monoamine oxidase-specific compositions, and methods of using them for the selective therapy of mammalian cancers, and in particular, in the treatment of human gliomas. Also disclosed are methods employing the novel targeted chemotherapeutics with one or more conventional anti-cancer therapies, including, for example, radiotherapy, or multi-drug regimens.
Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Date: 2015-08-04
Apparatus for determining the quantity of a target protein and other types of biomarkers or analytes present in a sample, the apparatus comprising:
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: NIGMS | Award Amount: 344.04K | Year: 2013
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a valvular disease in which the mitral valve does not close properly, thereby allowing blood to flow backward from the left ventricle to the left atrium of the heart. MR is among the most prevalent valve problems in the Western world. Doppler echocardiography has recently emerged as the method of choice for the non-invasive detection and evaluation of MR severity. However, due to the various color Doppler limitations, the accurate quantification of MR remains one of the major challenges in modern echocardiography. This is particularly the case with eccentric, wall-hugging regurgitant jets, known as the Coanda effect. This form of MR is currently very difficult to quantify and may lead to gross under-estimation of regurgitant volume by inexperienced cardiovascular observers. Using mathematical modeling, bifurcation analysis, and numerical simulations, combined with the in vitro experimental modeling of MR, and clinical experience, the investigators are developing a state-of-the-art tool for accurate non-invasive assessment of mitral regurgitation. The mathematical approach utilizes the most recent advances in fluid-structure interaction, modeling the flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid, coupled with the motion of an elastic regurgitant orifice simulating the regurgitant valve. A bifurcation diagram providing the information about different types of MR is being developed. The in vitro model is based on a pulsatile flow loop incorporating a mock imaging chamber, which contains a regurgitant orifice simulating the flow conditions encountered in patients with MR.
This is an exciting, new study, addressing a significant problem in the development of non-invasive diagnostic tools for the quantification of valvular regurgitation. The interdisciplinary team of investigators is developing sophisticated novel mathematics, high performance computing, and in vitro experimental tools, which, when used together, provide novel information about the severity of mitral valve regurgitation, that could not be obtained by using each individual approach separately. Based on this collaborative endeavor, detailed information about the blood flow conditions in patient regurgitant valves will be obtained, that could not be obtained by using classical 2D or even 3D echocardiography. This information will be used to quantify the severity of MR, which is the fundamental data on which surgical interventions are decided. The complementary mathematical tools, combined with the echocardiographic images, and clinical experience, support the next step in the evolution of modern 3D echocardiography for non-invasive diagnosis of pathological complex intra-cardiac flows. The broader impacts will be achieved through student education via interdisciplinary training and interdisciplinary course preparation. Two of the investigators are women, and active recruitment of women and minorities will continue. This project contributes toward building a strong partnership between academia (University of Houston) and health/medical industry (The Methodist Hospital).
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH | Award Amount: 17.60K | Year: 2016
COSINE (COmputational Surgery International NEtwork, computationalsurgery.org) was founded in 2008 to engage young student scientists and clinical fellows collaboratively in healthcare innovation. Computational surgery is the application of principles from mathematics, engineering and computer science to solve specific challenges encountered in surgical settings. Dr. Marc Garbey, together with an organizing committee, arranges an annual conference to offer the opportunity to exchange ideas in this field. COSINE fosters strong collaborations across the Atlantic involving researchers, clinicians and trainees in the U.S. and abroad.
The committee members and participants are located across the US and Europe and therefore the conference location alternates between the US and Europe. The 6th Annual International Conference in Computational Surgery and Dual Training is to be held in Bordeaux, France in late spring or early summer of 2016. Invited speakers include David Eckmann, M.D., Ph.D. (US), Dimitris Metaxas, Ph.D. (US), Michael I. Miga, Ph.D. (US), and Oktar Asoglu, M.D. (Turkey). The travel grants for the graduate students and surgical residents will be awarded to deserving members of Dr. Garbey?s NSF I/UCRC center group. About 40% of this highly diverse research group consists of female researchers.
This conference is vital to promote the concept of dual training between computational scientists and medical residents. In the short term the conference will deepen participants understanding of computational surgery and spark new collaborations. In addition to networking opportunities with a diverse group, student scientists and medical fellows will develop a shared understanding of how surgery and computational science can synergize to solve challenges encountered in patient care. Trainees will also present and gather feedback on their recent work, participate in discussions and visit local laboratories and clinical facilities. The conference will also help continue to attract new bright students to the field of computational surgery. Furthermore, it will have a strong impact on the solidification of the centers new NSF I/UCRC international node in France and foster collaboration between the US and European partners for the ultimate aim of improved healthcare, which is a priority of the U.S.
COSINE (COmputational Surgery International NEtwork, computationalsurgery.org) was founded in 2008 to nurture a new breed of engineers and scientists working across clinical and research silos to innovate and invigorate medical practice with computational tools. Dr. Marc Garbey, together with an organizing committee, arranges an annual conference to maintain momentum, enhance collaboration and offer the opportunity to interested clinicians and researcher to expand their knowledge in the field of computational surgery. The organizing committee consists of a diverse group in both gender and ethnicity from the US and Europe working to ensure diversity among participants of the conference. The COSINE fosters strong collaborations across the Atlantic involving researchers, clinicians and trainees in the US and abroad. Therefore, the committee alternates the location of the conference between the US and Europe. The 6th Annual International Conference in Computational Surgery and Dual Training is scheduled to be held in Bordeaux, France in late spring or early summer of 2016. Invited speakers include David Eckmann, M.D., Ph.D. (US), Dimitris Metaxas, Ph.D. (US), Michael I. Miga, Ph.D. (US), and Oktar Asoglu, M.D. (Turkey).
The travel grants for speakers will be awarded to two internationally acclaimed researchers based in the United States. The travel grants for graduated students and surgical residents will be awarded to deserving members of Dr. Garbeys NSF I/UCRC center group. This highly diverse research group is about 40% female and comprised of citizens from the US, France, Italy, Vietnam, and Germany with backgrounds in computer science, engineering, surgery and mathematical modeling, among others.
Computational surgery is the application of principles from mathematics, engineering and computer science to solve specific clinical challenges. Computer science has revolutionized the operating room through digitization of many commonly used tools. The scientifically-recorded activity of surgery and its everyday use on patients produce enormous volumes of digital data, demanding enhanced methods for data representation and medical informatics processing with the goal of improving the surgical process. Computational surgery is therefore also involves techniques to improve the surgical process by systematic analysis of a large volume of digital data.
This conference is vital to promote the concept of dual training between computational scientists and medical residents. In the short term the conference will deepen participants understanding of computational surgery and spark new collaborations. In addition to networking opportunities with a diverse group, trainees will develop a shared understanding of how surgery and computational science can synergize to solve challenges encountered globally in patient care. In addition to talks by invited speakers, the conference will offer the opportunity to trainees to present and gather feedback on their recent work, participate in plenary discussions and visit local laboratories and clinical facilities. The conference is also vital to keep momentum in COSINE and continue to attract new bright students to the field of computational surgery. Furthermore, it is expected that this conference will have a strong impact on the solidification of the centers new I/UCRC international node in France and foster collaboration between the US and European partners in this priority area of the nation.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS (CPS) | Award Amount: 237.81K | Year: 2017
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners use strong magnetic fields to safely image soft tissues deep inside the body. They offer a unique tool for guiding therapies: images while patient is inside the scanner can localize diseased tissue and guide an intervention with high accuracy. This research controls MRI magnetic fields to wirelessly push millimeter-scale robots through vessels in the body, assemble them into tools, and provide targeted drug delivery or pierce tissue. This will directly impact healthcare, improving patient outcome by enabling unparalleled minimal invasiveness resulting in faster recovery, fewer side effects, and cost-effectiveness. This transformative toolset for multi-agent control will set the foundation for a wealth of medical therapies and surgical interventions.
Using magnetic forces of clinical MRI scanners to steer miniature tetherless effectors through human bodies and combining with real-time imaging and operator immersion could transform the practice of minimally invasive interventions. This CPS will seamlessly integrate physical (scanner sensor/actuator, effectors, patient, operator) and cyber (world modeling, combined sensor and effector control, operator immersion). Work entails: (1) Portfolio of parametric effector designs that can be optimized to exploit the constraints of a given clinical procedure. (2) Toolbox of automatic controllers for MRI-based powering and steering of tetherless effectors in the body lumen, self-assembling them into tools, and precision therapy delivery or to pierce tissue. (3) Real-time MRI-based sensing of the physical world for imaging and tracking effectors and tissue. (4) Linked effector and MRI scanner control on-the-fly. (5) Visual/force-feedback human-robot interfacing. The work focuses on two effector classes: an MRI Gauss gun that stores magnetic potential energy released by a chain reaction when robots self-assemble, and an MRI pile-driver that converts kinetic energy from an enclosed sphere into impulses to tunnel into tissue. These approaches will be validated through analytical modeling, scaled hardware experiments, and experiments in clinical MRI scanners.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: INDUSTRY/UNIV COOP RES CENTERS | Award Amount: 475.51K | Year: 2015
The proposed center seeks to establish a new Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) addressing the research of cyber-physical systems for use in the hospital and operating room environments. The center will focus on computational science and technologies to advance, develop and promote research into the principles and technology of computational surgery science. This will be achieved through research, development, education, and technology exchange among academic, industry, hospitals and government entities via the I/UCRC framework.
The new center seeks to address an interdisciplinary area of central national economic importance. The center will endeavor to create a confluence of computational science, robotics, biomedical engineering, and medical expertise to positively impact the delivery of quality procedural and surgical interventions. The proposed center has the potential to bring together a diverse set of member companies and academics to achieve its goals as well as spawn new start-ups. The center plans to leverage an international network and new curriculum in computational surgery in order to achieve research and student impact.