Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP

Moscow, Russia

Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP

Moscow, Russia

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Travnikov O.,Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP | Hedgecock I.M.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | Matthias V.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Dastoor A.,Environment Canada | Lin C.-J.,Lamar University
E3S Web of Conferences | Year: 2013

A number of contemporary chemical transport models for mercury are applied within the framework of the EU GMOS project to study principal processes of mercury transport and transformations in the atmosphere. Each model is involved in simulation of short-term episodes corresponding to particular Hg measurement campaigns in Europe and other regions. In order to evaluate different physical and chemical mechanisms the models perform sensitivity runs with various parameterizations and/or combinations of considered processes. The modeling results are compared to detailed measurements of Hg species (Hg0/TGM, RGM, HgP) with high temporal resolution (hours) aiming at reproduction of short-term temporal variability of Hg air concentration. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013.


Harmens H.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Ilyin I.,Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP | Mills G.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Aboal J.R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 33 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

Previous analyses at the European scale have shown that cadmium and lead concentrations in mosses are primarily determined by the total deposition of these metals. Further analyses in the current study show that Spearman rank correlations between the concentration in mosses and the deposition modelled by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) are country and metal-specific. Significant positive correlations were found for about two thirds or more of the participating countries in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 (except for Cd in 1990). Correlations were often not significant and sometimes negative in countries where mosses were only sampled in a relatively small number of EMEP grids. Correlations frequently improved when only data for EMEP grids with at least three moss sampling sites per grid were included. It was concluded that spatial patterns and temporal trends agree reasonably well between lead and cadmium concentrations in mosses and modelled atmospheric deposition. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Goodsite M.E.,University of Aarhus | Outridge P.M.,University of Aarhus | Outridge P.M.,Geological Survey of Canada | Christensen J.H.,University of Aarhus | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

This review compares the reconstruction of atmospheric Hg deposition rates and historical trends over recent decades in the Arctic, inferred from Hg profiles in natural archives such as lake and marine sediments, peat bogs and glacial firn (permanent snowpack), against those predicted by three state-of-the-art atmospheric models based on global Hg emission inventories from 1990 onwards. Model veracity was first tested against atmospheric Hg measurements. Most of the natural archive and atmospheric data came from the Canadian-Greenland sectors of the Arctic, whereas spatial coverage was poor in other regions. In general, for the Canadian-Greenland Arctic, models provided good agreement with atmospheric gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations and trends measured instrumentally. However, there are few instrumented deposition data with which to test the model estimates of Hg deposition, and these data suggest models over-estimated deposition fluxes under Arctic conditions. Reconstructed GEM data from glacial firn on Greenland Summit showed the best agreement with the known decline in global Hg emissions after about 1980, and were corroborated by archived aerosol filter data from Resolute, Nunavut. The relatively stable or slowly declining firn and model GEM trends after 1990 were also corroborated by real-time instrument measurements at Alert, Nunavut, after 1995. However, Hg fluxes and trends in northern Canadian lake sediments and a southern Greenland peat bog did not exhibit good agreement with model predictions of atmospheric deposition since 1990, the Greenland firn GEM record, direct GEM measurements, or trends in global emissions since 1980. Various explanations are proposed to account for these discrepancies between atmosphere and archives, including problems with the accuracy of archive chronologies, climate-driven changes in Hg transfer rates from air to catchments, waters and subsequently into sediments, and post-depositional diagenesis in peat bogs. However, no general consensus in the scientific community has been achieved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Genssler L.,Als Obmann des Arbeitskreises Bioindikation Wirkungsermittlung der Landesanstalten und amter | Holy M.,University of Vechta | Harmens H.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Ilyin I.,Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP | And 2 more authors.
Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung | Year: 2010

Background, aim and scope Since 1990 the UN ECE Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys provide data inventories of the atmospheric heavy metal bioaccumulation across Europe. In the survey 2005 the nitrogen accumulation was measured for the first time in most of the participating countries. In Germany, the surveys were conducted in close cooperation of the relevant authorities of both the Federal Republic and the sixteen states. Therefore, statistical evaluations of the moss survey data with regard to the whole German territory and single federal states are of interest. This article concentrates on Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, dealing with the mapping of the spatiotemporal trends of metal accumulation from 1990 to 2005, the spatial patterns of nitrogen accumulation in 2005, and the spatial variability of bioaccumulation due to characteristics of the sampling sites and their surroundings. Materials and methods The bioaccumulation of up to 40 trace elements in mosses was determined according to a Europe-wide harmonised methodology. The according experimental protocol regulates the selection of sampling sites and moss species, the chemical analysis and quality control and the classification of the measured values for mapping spatial patterns. In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania all sampling sites were described with regard to topographical and ecological characteristics and several criteria to be fulfilled according to the guideline. Together with the measurements this metadata was combined with other information regarding land use in the surroundings of the sampling sites in the WebGIS MossMet. The spatial structure of the metal bioaccumulation was analysed and modelled by variogram analyses and then mapped by applying different kriging techniques. Furthermore, multi metal indices (MMI) were derived for both the sampling sites and raster maps with help of percentile statistics: The MMI1990-2005 was calculated for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn. The statistical association of the metal bioaccumulation, site specific characteristics as well as information on land use and emissions was analysed by bivariate nonparametric correlation analysis, contingency tables and Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID). Results The results of the quality controlled chemical analyses show a significant decrease of the metal bioaccumulation in Germany from 1990 to 2000 for all elements. However, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania the concentrations of Cr and Zn are even significantly higher than those found in 1990. From 2000 to 2005 a further non-significant increase can be stated for As, Cu, Ni and Ti. The concentrations of Cd and Pb decreased significantly throughout all four surveys. The MMI illustrates the temporal trend of the metal bioaccumulation as a whole: After a significant decrease from 1990 to 2000 it increased significantly till 2005. The N concentration in mosses in Mecklenburg- Western Pomerania reaches from 1.3 to 2.3 % in dry mass and is negatively correlated with the forest ratio in the surroundings of the moss sampling sites and to the same degree positively correlated with the area ratio of agricultural land uses. Except for Cd, Pb and Sb all metal concentrations in the mosses are negatively correlated with the forest ratio around the sampling sites. With the exception of Cr all metal concentrations are further negatively correlated with the precipitation sums of the accumulation periods. Only the Cu and Zn concentrations show no or rather a negative correlation with the tree height whereas all other elements exhibit positive correlations. Furthermore, all elements except Cr are significantly associated to the sampled moss species, the growth pattern and the frequency of occurrence of the mosses at the respective sampling sites. Exemplified for Cu multivariate correlations were furthermore detected by CHAID. It could be shown that the frequency of the mosses, the sampled moss species, the distance to motorways and the distance to the Baltic Sea are the statistically most significant boundary conditions of the Cu concentrations in the mosses sampled in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2005. No correlations were found between the modelled total depositions and the concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in the mosses at p < 0.1. For Pb in 1995 r is 0.52 at p = 0.012, for the other surveys no correlations at p < 0.05 could be found. Discussion The increase of the Cr bioaccumulation from 2000 till 2005 is particularly pronounced in Mecklenburg- Western Pomerania. This trend is confirmed with regional differences in the national average as well as in other participating countries like in Switzerland. Deposition measurements did not register this trend. In contrast to the UNECE area, the federal territory and several federal states no correlations were found between the modelled total depositions and the metal concentrations in the mosses. Conclusions The fact that no correlations were found between the modelled total depositions and the element concentrations in the mosses may be caused by the low spatial resolution (50 × 50 km) of the EMEP data. The moss surveys contribute to the heavy metal and the multi-componentmodel of CLRTAP because they prove on different spatial scales how air pollution control influences the accumulation of emitted substances in environmental subjects of protection like vegetation. In contrast to deposition measurement networks the moss monitoring identified a trend reversal in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: The continuous decrease of the metal bioaccumulation in mosses from 1990 till 2000 has changed to an increase of several metals between 2000 and 2005. This increase is significant for Cr and Zn. Recommendations and perspectives The spatial resolution of the EMEP deposition data should be enhanced based on the Europe-wide regression relationship between the element concentrations in the deposition and in the mosses. For regional studies the existing but so far not useable deposition measurement data of the federal states should be made available. It should further be investigated what caused the increase of the Cr concentrations above the level of 1990 - perhaps emissions or biogenic effects as a consequence of simultaneously increased nitrogen loads? The Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys are a positive example for environmental monitoring activities reaching across three spatial and administrative levels: regional (e. g. federal state or natural landscape), nation wide (e. g. Germany) and continental (e. g. Europe). In Germany the harmonised and quality controlled moss data are made available via a WebGIS portal. Therefore the moss data may easily be accessed for environmental monitoring purposes and the control of environmental political actions. Hence, the continuous task of environmental monitoring can be met and carried on in the future. It should further be considered to expand the moss monitoring on the survey of persistent organic pollutants and apply it in human-biomonitoring. This would facilitate the acquisition of indoor and outdoor pollution with the same receptor. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Schroder W.,University of Vechta | Pesch R.,University of Vechta | Harmens H.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Fagerli H.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Ilyin I.,Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2012

Within the framework of the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution atmospheric depositions of heavy metals and nitrogen as well as critical loads/levels exceedances are mapped yearly with a spatial resolution of 50 km by 50 km. The maps rely on emission data and are calculated by use of atmospheric modelling techniques. For validation, EMEP monitoring data collected at up to 70 sites across Europe are used. This spatially sparse coverage gave reason to test if the chemical and physical relations between atmospheric depositions and their accumulation in mosses collected at up to 7000 sites throughout Europe can be quantified in terms of statistical correlations which, if proven, could be used to calculate deposition maps with a higher spatial resolution. Indeed, combining EMEP maps on atmospheric depositions of cadmium, lead and nitrogen and the related maps of their concentrations in mosses by use of a Regression Kriging approach yielded deposition maps with a spatial resolution of 5 km by 5 km. Since spatial autocorrelation can make testing of statistical inference too liberal, the investigation at hand was to validate the 5 km by 5 km deposition maps by analysing if spatial auto-correlation of both EMEP deposition data and moss data impacted on the significance of their statistical correlation and, thus, the validity of the deposition maps. To this end, two hypotheses were tested: 1. The data on deposition and concentrations in mosses of heavy metals and nitrogen are not spatially auto-correlated significantly. 2. The correlations between the deposition and moss data lack of statistical significance due to spatial autocorrelation. Results As already published, the regression models corroborated significant correlations between the concentrations of heavy metals and nitrogen in atmospheric depositions on the one hand and respective concentrations in mosses on the other hand. This investigation proved that atmospheric deposition and bioaccumulation data are spatially auto-correlated significantly in terms of Moran's I values and, thus, hypothesis 1 could be rejected. Accordingly, the degrees of freedom were reduced. Nevertheless, the results of the calculations regarding the reduced degrees of freedom indicate that the statistical relations between atmospheric depositions and bioaccumulations remained statistically significant so that hypothesis 2 could be rejected, too. Conclusions The positive auto-correlation in data on atmospheric deposition and bioaccumulation does not call for a revision of the 5 km by 5 km deposition maps published in recent papers. Therefore we can conclude that the European moss monitoring yields data that support the validation of modelling and mapping of atmospheric depositions of heavy metals and nitrogen at a high spatial resolution compared to the 50 km × 50 km EMEP maps. © 2012 Schröder et al.


Schroder W.,University of Vechta | Pesch R.,University of Vechta | Holy M.,University of Vechta | Genssler L.,Obmann Arbeitskreis Bioindikation und Wirkungsermittlung der Landesanstalten und Amter | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2012

Every five years since 1990, the European moss surveys provide data on concentrations of heavy metals and since 2005 on nitrogen (N) in mosses. Germany participated in the monitoring campaigns 1990-2005. As part of a series reporting the trends for Germany and single federal states, this article is on North Rhine-Westphalia showing that the metal concentrations decreased from 1990 to 2000 for all elements but Zn. From 2000 to 2005 an increase can be stated for As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sb, Zn and the Multi Metal Index MMI1990-2005. The N concentration reaches from 1.08 to 2,29 % in dry mass showing significant correlations to the agriculture density (+), the height of the surrounding trees (+), the forests density (-), the distance to trees (-), altitude (-) and the precipitation sum for the accumulation period (-). The according correlation coefficients (Spearman) reach from rs 0.32 to 0.49 (p < 0.01). The correlation of the metal loads in the mosses and land use characteristics in the vicinity of the sampling sites lie between rs = 0.21 and rs = 0.54 (0.01 < p < 0.05). The type of moss species and the moss growth patterns are associated to a similar degree (Cramér's V-values between 0.27 and 0.56). Of all investigated site specific information on forest density (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, N), urban density (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn), precipitation (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, Zn, N), altitude (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fr, Ni, Ti, Zn, N) and the distance of the sampling site to roads (Cr, Fe, Ni, Ti), trees or bushes (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn) are those showing significant correlations to most elements. The urban land use density in a radius of 5 km around the sampling site as well as altitude and the distance of the sampling site to nearby trees are the statistically most significant factors for the Cu concentrations in mosses sampled in 2005. The total deposition of Cd (EMEP) and Cd concentrations in mosses are correlated significantly (0.57 ≤ r s ≥ 0.71, p < 0.01). © 2012 Schroder et al.


Schroder W.,University of Vechta | Pesch R.,University of Vechta | Zechmeister H.,University of Vienna | Kratz W.,University of Vechta | And 4 more authors.
Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung | Year: 2010

Purpose Under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution mosses are used to map the bioaccumulation of heavy metals and nitrogen throughout Europe. To this end, since 1990 mosses were sampled and analyzed chemically every five years. The goal of this article is to apply the moss survey data for assessing the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and N in German Natura 2000 Sites of Community Importance (SCI). Methods The temporal trends of the heavy metal bioaccumulation within SCIs were analyzed using a multi metal index (MMI) calculated by means of geostatistics and percentile statistics. For nitrogen, only monitoring values for 2005 were available for the assessment. The geostatisticall estimated values of the metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses were transformed to estimated deposition values by use of regression analyses. Subsequently, the results were integrated into the assessment of the German SCIs. Results Highest metal loads within SCIs were detected in 1990, followed by a continuous decrease to 2000 and a significant increase until 2005. Regarding N, a median of 1.5 % nitrogen in the dry mass was calculated. The deposition values calculated from the moss estimates resulted in median values of 0.33 g/ha/a for Cd, 8.2 g/ha/a for Pb and 16.7 kg/ha/a for nitrogen. Conclusions The Moss-Monitoring is the only environmental monitoring programme which enables statistically sound estimations of the exposure of SCI to environmental contaminants in terms of heavy metal and nitrogen deposition and bioaccumulation. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Schroder W.,University of Vechta | Holy M.,University of Vechta | Pesch R.,University of Vechta | Ilyin I.,Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP | And 2 more authors.
Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung | Year: 2010

Background, aim, and scope Since 1990 the UN ECE Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys provide data inventories of the atmospheric heavy metal bioaccumulation in mosses across Europe. In the 2005 survey the nitrogen accumulation was measured for the first time in most of the participating countries. In Germany, the surveys were conducted in close cooperation with the relevant authorities of both the Federal Republic and the sixteen states. Therefore, statistical evaluations of the moss survey data with regard to the whole German territory and single federal states are of interest. This article concentrates on the federal state Baden- Württemberg, dealing with the mapping of the spatiotemporal trends of metal accumulation from 1990 to 2005, the spatial patterns of nitrogen accumulation in 2005, and the spatial variability of bioaccumulation due to characteristics of the sampling sites and their surroundings. Furthermore, for the first time the relationship between the element concentrations in the mosses and Europe-wide modelled data on total depositions from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) on total depositions and were evaluated by means of correlation analysis using lead as an example. EMEP is a scientifically based programme under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) for international co-operation to model transboundary air pollution problems. Materials and methods In Baden-Württemberg the bioaccumulation of metal elements was determined mainly in Hypnum cupressiforme moss samples since 1990 and in 2005 also nitrogen was investigated according to a Europewide harmonised methodology. The according experimental protocol describes the selection of sampling sites and moss species, the chemical analysis and quality control and the dissemiation of the measured values for mapping spatial patterns. In Baden-Württemberg all sampling sites were described with regard to topographical and ecological characteristics and several criteria to be fulfilled according to the guideline. Together with the measurements this metadata was combined with other information regarding land use in the surroundings of the sampling sites in the WebGIS MossMet. The spatial structure of the metal bioaccumulation was analysed and modelled by variogram analyses and then mapped by applying different kriging techniques. Furthermore, multi metal indices (MMI) were derived for both the sampling sites and raster maps with help of percentile statistics: The MMI 1990-2005 was calculated for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn. The statistical association of the metal bioaccumulation, site specific characteristics as well as information on land use and emissions were analysed by bivariate nonparametric correlation analysis, contingency tables and Chisquare Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID). Results The moss analyses show a statistically significant decrease of the bioaccumulation of most metal elements from 1990 till 2005. Only the Cr and Sb concentrations in the mosses increased from 2000 till 2005, however not statistically significant. Also the decline of the MMI from 2000 till 2005 is not statistically significant. The nitrogen concentrations in the mosses sampled in Baden-Württemberg range from 1.15 to 1.74 % and are negatively correlated with the tree height(r s = 0.43, p < 0.01). The rank correlation coefficients which reflect the statistical association between the metal concentrations in the mosses and the land uses in the surroundings of the sampling sites range from rs = 0.3 to rs = 0.7 (p < 0.05). Among the site descriptors mainly the variables proportion of forested land uses (especially Cd, Pb, Zn), proportion of agricultural land uses (Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn) precipitation sum (Cd, Pb, Zn), altitude (Cr, Fe, V), tree height (As, Hg, Pb, V) and the distance of the sampling site to the nearest road (Hg) as well as to tree crowns and bushes (Cu, Hg, Pb, V) feature significant correlations with the metal concentrations in the mosses. Without consideration of the EMEP deposition data the multivariate statistical CHAID analysis identifies the proportion of forested land uses in a radius of 5 km around the sampling site as well as the slope and altitude as the statistically most significant factors for the Cd concentrations in the mosses sampled in 2005. The total deposition of Pb (EMEP) and the Pb concentrations in mosses in Baden-Württemberg are correlated (2005: r = 0.52, p < 0.01). Discussion For the first time it could be shown that element concentrations measured in mosses of Baden-Württemberg are associated with modelled total depositions of lead (EMEP). The strength of the statistical correlations was found to vary with time. The comparison of atmospheric depositions and element concentration in mosses should be repeated with measured deposition data. In a pilot study this was carried out with data coming from e.g. the ICP Forest Level 2 data on throughfall and open field bulk deposition measurements. By relating data on atmospheric depositions with those on element concentration in mosses modelled deposition maps from the ICP Mapping and Modelling Programme could be validated. Furthermore the rather low resolution of the EMEP maps could be enhanced. Highly resolved deposition data is needed for the calculation of practice-oriented regionally differentiated exceedances of critical loads. In comparison with the deposition measurements, which feature a higher temporal resolution, the moss monitoring spaciously encompasses a wide spectrum of elements containing also elements with a human-toxicological relevance (e. g. As, Al, Hg, Sb, V) which are rarely measured in other monitoring networks. Hence the standardised biomonitoring of air pollutions with ectohydric mosses forms an important link between the technical acquisition of element depositions and their accumulation in biological material. Conclusions The moss surveys contribute to the heavy metal and the multi-component-model of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) because they show on different spatial scales how air pollution control influences the accumulation of emitted substances in environmental subjects of protection like vegetation. If environmental monitoring is seen as a continuous task and the applied methodology works well as an early warning system then environmental policy is enabled to act in preventative way and to pursue unexpected developments. No other environmental monitoring programme provides such a wide range of ecotoxicologically relevant elements measured as spatially dense as the case for the moss surveys. The spatial distribution of environmental information is an essential criterion for their usability in terms of political measures for the federal states and the federation. Recommendations and perspectives The Heavy Metals in Mosses Surveys are a good example for environmental monitoring activities reaching across three spatial and administrative levels: regional (e. g. federal state or natural landscape), nation wide (e. g. Germany) and continental (e. g. Europe). In Germany the harmonised and quality controlled moss data are made available via a WebGIS portal. Therefore, the moss data may easily be accessed for environmental monitoring purposes and the control of environmental political actions. Hence, the continuous task of environmental monitoring can be met and carried on in the future. Further, the moss monitoring is the only monitoring network in Europe which provides sufficiently differentiated area-wide data on the nitrogen exposure of semi-natural and agriculturally influenced ecosystems, which are also spatially meaningful for single countries and their administrative subdivisions (e. g. federal states). The Europe-wide correlations between element concentrations in mosses and modelled EMEP deposition data proved in other recent studies will be used to improve the spatial resolution of metal and nitrogen deposition mapping in order to comply with the requirements of science and praxis better than so far. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Thoni L.,Research Group for Environmental Monitoring FUB | Yurukova L.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Bergamini A.,Research Group for Environmental Monitoring FUB | Ilyin I.,Meteorological Synthesizing Center East of EMEP | Matthaei D.,Research Group for Environmental Monitoring FUB
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Owing to their ability to accumulate heavy metals, mosses are especially suitable to monitor heavy metal airborne pollution. In Europe, starting in 1990 within the framework of UNECE ICP-Vegetation, the monitoring of background heavy metal deposition based on concentrations found in mosses were performed every five years in Switzerland, and, since 1995 also Bulgaria. Here we compare spatial and temporal trends of heavy metal depositions in these two countries and we assess to what extent a large scale European deposition model (MSCE-HM model) can be applied on these two countries.Highly significant differences in concentrations in mosses between the two countries were found for Cd, Cu, Ni, V, Cr, Fe, Pb. For Zn the differences were less clear, but still significant in 2000 and 2005. In Bulgaria, with the exception of Cr, heavy metal concentrations decreased between 1995 and 2005 (-14% to -29%). In Switzerland, Cd (-38%), Pb (-63%) and V (-23%) showed the strongest decrease between 1995 and 2005. For Fe, Ni and Zn no or only small concentration changes were found, whereas a considerable rise was recorded for Cr (+65%) and Cu (+15%). In comparison to median heavy metal concentrations in Europe, concentrations in Bulgaria were nearly always higher, while concentrations in Switzerland were always lower. For both Pb and Cd, relationships between modelled and moss-derived values for all of the years were highly significant, but explained variances were rather low. Overall, relationships between moss-derived depositions and modelled depositions were rather close to a 1:1-relationship in Switzerland. In Bulgaria the modelled depositions were considerably lower than the moss-derived depositions.Although deposition levels in Bulgaria also decreased, heavy metal concentrations in mosses were still high. In contrast to Switzerland, Bulgaria has a strong non-ferrous and ferrous heavy industry. New technologies must be implemented in order to reduce deposition levels in Bulgaria. Continuing the moss monitoring is crucial for future evaluations of environmental measures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Bieser J.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | De Simone F.,National Research Council Italy | Gencarelli C.,National Research Council Italy | Geyer B.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

This study is part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS), a European FP7 project dedicated to the improvement and validation of mercury models to assist in establishing a global monitoring network and to support political decisions. One key question about the global mercury cycle is the efficiency of its removal out of the atmosphere into other environmental compartments. So far, the evaluation of modeled wet deposition of mercury was difficult because of a lack of long-term measurements of oxidized and elemental mercury. The oxidized mercury species gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) which are found in the atmosphere in typical concentrations of a few to a few tens pg/m3 are the relevant components for the wet deposition of mercury. In this study, the first European long-term dataset of speciated mercury taken at Waldhof/Germany was used to evaluate deposition fields modeled with the chemistry transport model (CTM) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) and to analyze the influence of the governing parameters. The influence of the parameters precipitation and atmospheric concentration was evaluated using different input datasets for a variety of CMAQ simulations for the year 2009. It was found that on the basis of daily and weekly measurement data, the bias of modeled depositions could be explained by the bias of precipitation fields and atmospheric concentrations of GOM and PBM. A correction of the modeled wet deposition using observed daily precipitation increased the correlation, on average, from 0.17 to 0.78. An additional correction based on the daily average GOM and PBM concentration lead to a 50 % decrease of the model error for all CMAQ scenarios. Monthly deposition measurements were found to have a too low temporal resolution to adequately analyze model deficiencies in wet deposition processes due to the nonlinear nature of the scavenging process. Moreover, the general overestimation of atmospheric GOM by the CTM in combination with an underestimation of low precipitation events in the meteorological models lead to a good agreement of total annual wet deposition besides the large error in weekly deposition estimates. Moreover, it was found that the current speciation profiles for GOM emissions are the main factor for the overestimation of atmospheric GOM concentrations and might need to be revised in the future. The assumption of zero emissions of GOM lead to an improvement of the mean normalized bias for three-hourly observations of atmospheric GOM from 9.7 to 0.5, Furthermore, the diurnal correlation between model and observation increased from 0.01 to 0.64. This is a strong indicator that GOM is not directly emitted from primary sources but is mainly created by oxidation of GEM. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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