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Feng J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Lee D.-K.,Seoul National University | Fu C.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Tang J.,Nanjing University | And 4 more authors.
Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics | Year: 2011

A number of uncertainties exist in climate simulation because the results of climate models are influenced by factors such as their dynamic framework, physical processes, initial and driving fields, and horizontal and vertical resolution. The uncertainties of the model results may be reduced, and the credibility can be improved by employing multi-model ensembles. In this paper, multi-model ensemble results using 10-year simulations of five regional climate models (RCMs) from December 1988 to November 1998 over Asia are presented and compared. The simulation results are derived from phase II of the Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (RMIP) for Asia. Using the methods of the arithmetic mean, the weighted mean, multivariate linear regression, and singular value decomposition, the ensembles for temperature, precipitation, and sea level pressure are carried out. The results show that the multi-RCM ensembles outperform the single RCMs in many aspects. Among the four ensemble methods used, the multivariate linear regression, based on the minimization of the root mean square errors, significantly improved the ensemble results. With regard to the spatial distribution of the mean climate, the ensemble result for temperature was better than that for precipitation. With an increasing number of models used in the ensembles, the ensemble results were more accurate. Therefore, a multi-model ensemble is an efficient approach to improve the results of regional climate simulations. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Kanada S.,Meteorological Research Institute JMA | Wada A.,Meteorological Research Institute JMA | Sugi M.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

Recent studies have projected that global warming may lead to an increase in the number of extremely intense tropical cyclones. However, how global warming affects the structure of extremely intense tropical cyclones has not been thoroughly examined. This study defines extremely intense tropical cyclones as having a minimum central pressure below 900 hPa and investigates structural changes in the inner core and thereby changes in the intensity in the future climate. A 2-km mesh nonhydrostatic model (NHM2) is used to downscale the 20-km mesh atmospheric general circulation model projection forced with a control scenario and a scenario of twenty-first-century climate change. The eyewall region of extremely intense tropical cyclones simulated by NHM2 becomes relatively smaller and taller in the future climate. The intense nearsurface inflow intrudes more inward toward the eye. The heights and the radii of the maximum wind speed significantly decrease and an intense updraft area extends from the lower level around the leading edge of thinner near-surface inflows, where the equivalent potential temperature substantially increases in the future climate. Emanuel's potential intensity theory suggests that about half of the intensification (increase in central pressure fall) is explained by the changes in the atmospheric environments and sea surface temperature, while the remaining half needs to be explained by other processes. It is suggested that the structural change projected by NHM2, which is significant within a radius of 50 km, is playing an important role in the intensification of extremely intense tropical cyclones in simulations of the future climate. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source

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