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Lien V.S.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research | Gusdal Y.,Meteorological Institute | Vikebo F.B.,Norwegian Institute of Marine Research
Ocean Dynamics | Year: 2014

The northward flow of warm and saline Atlantic Water through the eastern Nordic Seas sustains a spring-bloom ecosystem that hosts some of the world's largest commercial fish stocks. Abrupt climatic changes, or changes beyond species-specific thresholds, may have severe effects on species abundance and distribution. Here, we utilize a numerical ocean model hindcast to explore the similarities and differences between large-scale anomalies, such as great salinity anomalies, and along-shelf hydrographic anomalies of regional origin, which represent abrupt changes at subannual time scales. The large-scale anomalies enter the Nordic Seas to the south and propagate northward at a speed one order of magnitude less than the Atlantic Water current speed. On the contrary, wind-generated along-shelf anomalies appear simultaneously along the Norwegian continental shelf and propagate northward at speeds associated with topographically trapped Kelvin waves. This process involves changes in the vertical extent of the Atlantic Water along the continental slope. Such a dynamic oceanic response both affects thermal habitats and has the potential to ventilate shelf waters by modifying the cross-shelf transport of nutrients and key prey items for early stages of fish. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Zabori J.,University of Stockholm | Krejci R.,University of Stockholm | Krejci R.,University of Helsinki | Ekman A.M.L.,University of Stockholm | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

Sea spray aerosols are an important part of the climate system through their direct and indirect effects. Due to the diminishing sea ice, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most rapidly changing sea spray aerosol source areas. However, the influence of these changes on primary particle production is not known. In laboratory experiments we examined the influence of Arctic Ocean water temperature, salinity, and oxygen saturation on primary particle concentration characteristics. Sea water temperature was identified as the most important of these parameters. A strong decrease in sea spray aerosol production with increasing water temperature was observed for water temperatures between -1°C and 9°C. Aerosol number concentrations decreased from at least 1400 -3 to 350 cm-3. In general, the aerosol number size distribution exhibited a robust shape with one mode close to dry diameter Dp 0.2 μm with approximately 45% of particles at smaller sizes. Changes in sea water temperature did not result in pronounced change of the shape of the aerosol size distribution, only in the magnitude of the concentrations. Our experiments indicate that changes in aerosol emissions are most likely linked to changes of the physical properties of sea water at low temperatures. The observed strong dependence of sea spray aerosol concentrations on sea water temperature, with a large fraction of the emitted particles in the typical cloud condensation nuclei size range, provide strong arguments for a more careful consideration of this effect in climate models. © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Source

Berman A.,Hebrew University | Horovitz T.,Meteorological Institute
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Reducing thermal radiation on shaded animals reduces heat stress independently of other means of stress relief. Radiant heat exchange was estimated as a function of climate, shade structure, and animal density. Body surface portion exposed to radiant sources in shaded environments was determined by geometrical relations to determine angles of view of radiation sources (roof underside, sky, sun-exposed ground, shaded ground) on the animal's surface. The relative representation of environment radiation sources on the body surface was determined. Animal thermal radiation balance was derived from radiant heat gained from radiation sources (including surrounding animals) and that lost from the animal surface. The animal environment was assumed to have different shade dimensions and temperatures. These were summed to the radiant heat balance of the cow. The data formed served to estimate the effect of changes in intensity of radiation sources, roof and shaded surface dimensions, and animal density on radiant heat balance (Rbal) of cattle. Roof height effect was expressed by effect of roof temperature on Rbal. Roof underside temperature (35 to 75°C) effect on Rbal was reduced by roof height. If roof height were 4m, an increase in its underside temperature from 35 to 75°C would increase mean Rbal from -63 to -2 W·m-2, whereas if roof height were 10m, Rbal would only increase from -99 to -88 W·m-2. A hot ground temperature increase from 35 to 65°C reduced mean Rbal heat loss from -45 to 3 W·m-2. Increasing the surface of the shaded area had only a minor effect on Rbal and on the effect of hot ground on Rbal. Increasing shade roof height reduced the effect of roof temperature on Rbal to minor levels when height was >8m. Increasing the roof height from 4 to 10m decreased Rbal from -32 to -94 W·m-2. Increasing indirect radiation from 100 to 500 W·m-2 was associated with an increase in Rbal from -135 to +23 W·m-2. Their combined effects were lower Rbal with increasing roof height and a reduction in rate of decrease with increasing level of indirect radiation. Roof height as an Rbal attenuator declined with increasing indirect radiation level. The latter factor might be reduced by lowering roof surface radiation absorption and through roof heat transfer, as well as by use of shade structure elements to reduce indirect radiation in the shaded area. Radiant heat from the cow body surface may be reduced by lower cow density. Radiant heat attenuation may thus further elevate animal productivity in warm climates, with no associated operation costs. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Koszalka I.,University of Oslo | LaCasce J.H.,University of Oslo | Andersson M.,University of Bergen | Orvik K.A.,University of Bergen | Mauritzen C.,Meteorological Institute
Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers | Year: 2011

We compare two methods for estimating mean velocities and diffusivities from surface drifter observations, using data from the Nordic Seas. The first is the conventional method of grouping data into geographical bins. The second relies on a "clustering" algorithm, and groups velocity observations according to nearest-neighbor distance. Capturing the spatial variability of the mean velocity requires using bins with a length scale of ~50km. However, because many bins have few observations, the statistical significance varies substantially between bins. Clustering yields sets with approximately the same number of observations, so the significance is more uniform. At the densely sampled Svinøy section, clusters can be used to construct the mean flow field with ≤10km resolution. Clustering also excels at the estimation of eddy diffusivities, allowing resolution at the 20. km scale in the densely sampled regions. Taking bathymetry into account in the clustering process further improves mean estimates where the data is sparse.Clustering the available surface drifter data, extended by recent deployments from the POLEWARD project, reveals new features in the surface circulation. These are a large anticyclonic vortex in the center of the Lofoten Basin and two anticyclonic recirculations at the Svinøy section. Clustering also yields maps of the eddy diffusivities at unprecedented resolution. Diffusivities are suppressed at the core of the Norwegian Atlantic Current, while they are elevated in the Lofoten Basin and along the Polar Front. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nesje A.,University of Bergen | Nesje A.,University Bjerknes Center | Pilo L.H.,Oppland fylkeskommune | Finstad E.,Oppland fylkeskommune | And 8 more authors.
Holocene | Year: 2012

The main aim of this study is to describe consequences of climate change in the mountain region of southern Norway with respect to recently exposed finds of archaeological remains associated with reindeer hunting and trapping at and around ice patches in central southern Norway. In the early years of the twenty-first century, warm summers caused negative glacier mass balance and significant glacier retreat and melting of ice patches in central southern Norway. As a result, prehistoric remains lost and/or left by past reindeer hunters appeared at ice patches in mountain areas of southern Norway. In the warm summer and autumn of 2006 the number of artefact recoveries at ice patches increased significantly because of melting of snow and ice patches and more than 100 objects were recovered in the Oppland county alone. In 2009, detailed multidisciplinary investigations were carried out at the Juvfonne ice patch in Jotunheimen at an elevation of c. 1850 metres. A well-preserved Iron Age hunting station was discovered and in total c. 600 artefacts have been documented at the Juvfonne site alone. Most of the objects were recovered and brought to the Museum of Cultural History at the University of Oslo for conservation, exhibition and storing. Thirteen so called 'scaring sticks' recovered from the recently exposed foreland of Juvfonne were radiocarbon dated, yielding ages that group in two separate time intervals, ad 246-534 and ad 804-898 (±1 sigma). By putting the temporal distribution of the radiocarbon-dated artefacts into the context of late-Holocene glacier-size variations in the Jotunheimen and Jostedalsbreen regions, we conclude that the most extensive reindeer hunting and trapping associated with snow/ice patches was related to periods with prevailing warm summers when the reindeer herds gathered on high-altitude, contracted glaciers and ice patches to avoid insect plagues. The 'freshness' of the fragile organic finds strongly indicates that at least some of the artefacts were rapidly covered by snow and ice and that they may have been more-or-less continuously covered by snow and ice since they were first buried. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

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