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Borodin P.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Brenes J.,Instituto Costarricense Of Electricidad | Daudi E.,Direccao Nacional de Geologia | Efendi N.,Meteorological and Geophysical Agency | And 15 more authors.
Data Science Journal | Year: 2011

Good magnetic observatories are needed more than ever for global modeling and navigation. Magnetic satellite missions, once said to be the death of ground based observations, are now demanding quality data from fixed observations points on the Earth.

Nakano M.,Japan National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention | Kumagai H.,Japan National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention | Toda S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Toda S.,Kyoto University | And 4 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010

On 2007 March 6, an earthquake doublet occurred along the Sumatran fault, Indonesia. The epicentres were located near Padang Panjang, central Sumatra, Indonesia. The first earthquake, with a moment magnitude (Mw) of 6.4, occurred at 03:49 UTC and was followed two hours later (05:49 UTC) by an earthquake of similar size (Mw = 6.3). We studied the earthquake doublet by a waveform inversion analysis using data from a broadband seismograph network in Indonesia (JISNET). The focal mechanisms of the two earthquakes indicate almost identical right-lateral strike-slip faults, consistent with the geometry of the Sumatran fault. Both earthquakes nucleated below the northern end of Lake Singkarak, which is in a pull-apart basin between the Sumani and Sianok segments of the Sumatran fault system, but the earthquakes ruptured different fault segments. The first earthquake occurred along the southern Sumani segment and its rupture propagated southeastward, whereas the second one ruptured the northern Sianok segment northwestward. Along these fault segments, earthquake doublets, in which the two adjacent fault segments rupture one after the other, have occurred repeatedly. We investigated the state of stress at a segment boundary of a fault system based on the Coulomb stress changes. The stress on faults increases during interseismic periods and is released by faulting. At a segment boundary, on the other hand, the stress increases both interseismically and coseismically, and may not be released unless new fractures are created. Accordingly, ruptures may tend to initiate at a pull-apart basin. When an earthquake occurs on one of the fault segments, the stress increases coseismically around the basin. The stress changes caused by that earthquake may trigger a rupture on the other segment after a short time interval. We also examined the mechanism of the delayed rupture based on a theory of a fluid-saturated poroelastic medium and dynamic rupture simulations incorporating a rheological velocity hardening effect. These models of the delayed rupture can qualitatively explain the observations, but further studies, especially based on the rheological effect, are required for quantitative studies. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

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