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Gaiser T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Berroa-Garcia L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kemmerling R.,Paracelsus Medical University | Dutta A.,MetaSystems | And 2 more authors.
Cellular Oncology | Year: 2011

Background The simultaneous detection of protein expression and gene copy number changes in patient samples, like paraffin-embedded tissue sections, is challenging since the procedures of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) negatively influence each other which often results in suboptimal staining. Therefore, we developed a novel automated algorithm based on relocation which allows subsequent detection of protein content and gene copy number changes within the same cell. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue sections of colorectal cancers were stained for CD133 expression. IHC images were acquired and image coordinates recorded. Slides were subsequently hybridized with fluorescently labeled DNA probes. FISH images were taken at the previously recorded positions allowing for direct comparison of protein expression and gene copy number signals within the same cells/ tissue areas. Relocation, acquisition of the IHC and FISH images, and enumeration of FISH signals in the immunophenotyped tumour areas were done in an automated fashion. Results Automated FISH analysis was performed on 13 different colon cancer samples that had been stained for CD133; each sample was scored for MYC, ZNF217 and Chromosome 6 in CD133 positive and negative glands. From the 13 cases four (31%) showed amplification for the MYC oncogene and seven of 13 (54%) cases were amplified for ZNF217. There was no significant difference between CD133 positive tumour and CD133 negative tumour cells. Conclusion The technique and algorithm presented here enables an easy and reproducible combination of IHC and FISH based on a novel automated algorithm using relocation and automated spot counting. © International Society for Cellular Oncology 2011. Source


Roemer E.,Philip Morris Products S.A. | Zenzen V.,Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH | Conroy L.L.,Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH | Luedemann K.,Philip Morris Research Laboratories GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2015

Total particulate matter (TPM) and the gas-vapor phase (GVP) of mainstream smoke from the Reference Cigarette 3R4F were assayed in the cytokinesis-block in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay and the in vitro chromosome aberration (CA) assay, both using V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed for up to 24 h. The Metafer image analysis platform was adapted resulting in a fully automated evaluation system of the MN assay for the detection, identification and reporting of cells with micronuclei together with the determination of the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) to quantify the treatment-related cytotoxicity. In the CA assay, the same platform was used to identify, map and retrieve metaphases for a subsequent CA evaluation by a trained evaluator. In both the assays, TPM and GVP provoked a significant genotoxic effect: up to 6-fold more micronucleated target cells than in the negative control and up to 10-fold increases in aberrant metaphases. Data variability was lower in the automated version of the MN assay than in the non-automated. It can be estimated that two test substances that differ in their genotoxicity by approximately 30% can statistically be distinguished in the automated MN and CA assays. Time savings, based on man hours, due to the automation were approximately 70% in the MN and 25% in the CA assays. The turn-around time of the evaluation phase could be shortened by 35 and 50%, respectively. Although only cigarette smoke-derived test material has been applied, the technical improvements should be of value for other test substances. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Schunck C.,MetaSystems
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

The HER2/neu gene (also known as ERBB2) is located on chromosome 17 (q11.2-q12) and encodes a glycoprotein known to be a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family. Clinically, the determination of its amplification status is of utmost importance, as 10-35% of invasive human breast carcinomas come along with HER2/neu overexpression, and treatment has to be adjusted accordingly. Here a method to analyze HER2 FISH samples with digital microscopy, using the slide scanning -platform Metafer PV (MetaSystems, Altlussheim, Germany), is presented. Metafer PV is a system for the automation of HER2/neu FISH assay analysis of samples hybridized with the Abbott(™) PathVysion(®) probe kit. Source


M'Kacher R.,French Atomic Energy Commission | El Maalouf E.,French Atomic Energy Commission | El Maalouf E.,Upper Alsace University | Terzoudi G.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2015

Purpose To combine telomere and centromere (TC) staining of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) fusions to identify dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes, making possible the realization of a dose-response curve and automation of the process. Methods and Materials Blood samples from healthy donors were exposed to 60Co irradiation at varying doses up to 8 Gy, followed by a repair period of 8 hours. Premature chromosome condensation fusions were carried out, and TC staining using peptide nucleic acid probes was performed. Chromosomal aberration (CA) scoring was carried out manually and automatically using PCC-TCScore software, developed in our laboratory. Results We successfully optimized the hybridization conditions and image capture parameters, to increase the sensitivity and effectiveness of CA scoring. Dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes were rapidly and accurately detected, leading to a linear-quadratic dose-response curve by manual scoring at up to 8 Gy. Using PCC-TCScore software for automatic scoring, we were able to detect 95% of dicentrics and centric rings. Conclusion The introduction of TC staining to the PCC fusion technique has made possible the rapid scoring of unstable CAs, including dicentrics, with a level of accuracy and ease not previously possible. This new approach can be used for biological dosimetry in radiation emergency medicine, where the rapid and accurate detection of dicentrics is a high priority using automated scoring. Because there is no culture time, this new approach can also be used for the follow-up of patients treated by genotoxic therapy, creating the possibility to perform the estimation of induced chromosomal aberrations immediately after the blood draw. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Altomare D.A.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Menges C.W.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Xu J.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Pei J.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The CDKN2A/ARF locus encompasses overlapping tumor suppressor genes p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF), which are frequently co-deleted in human malignant mesothelioma (MM). The importance of p16(INK4A) loss in human cancer is well established, but the relative significance of p14(ARF) loss has been debated. The tumor predisposition of mice singly deficient for either Ink4a or Arf, due to targeting of exons 1α or 1β, respectively, supports the idea that both play significant and nonredundant roles in suppressing spontaneous tumors. To further test this notion, we exposed Ink4a(+/-) and Arf(+/-) mice to asbestos, the major cause of MM. Asbestos-treated Ink4a(+/-) and Arf(+/-) mice showed increased incidence and shorter latency of MM relative to wild-type littermates. MMs from Ink4a(+/-) mice exhibited biallelic inactivation of Ink4a, loss of Arf or p53 expression and frequent loss of p15(Ink4b). In contrast, MMs from Arf(+/-) mice exhibited loss of Arf expression, but did not require loss of Ink4a or Ink4b. Mice doubly deficient for Ink4a and Arf, due to deletion of Cdkn2a/Arf exon 2, showed accelerated asbestos-induced MM formation relative to mice deficient for Ink4a or Arf alone, and MMs exhibited biallelic loss of both tumor suppressor genes. The tumor suppressor function of Arf in MM was p53-independent, since MMs with loss of Arf retained functional p53. Collectively, these in vivo data indicate that both CDKN2A/ARF gene products suppress asbestos carcinogenicity. Furthermore, while inactivation of Arf appears to be crucial for MM pathogenesis, the inactivation of both p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf) cooperate to accelerate asbestos-induced tumorigenesis. © 2011 Altomare et al. Source

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