Aasa J.,Astrazeneca |
Hu Y.,Astrazeneca |
Eklund G.,Astrazeneca |
Eklund G.,MetaSafe AB |
And 5 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2013
Time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of the cytochrome P450 (P450) family of enzymes is usually studied in human liver microsomes (HLM) by investigating whether the inhibitory potency is increased with increased incubation times. The presented work was initiated after a discrepancy was observed for the TDI of an important P450 enzyme, CYP3A4, during early studies of the investigational drug compound AZD3839 [(S)-1-(2-(difluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)-4-fluoro-1-(3- (pyrimidin-5-yl)phenyl)-1H-isoindol-3-amine hemifumarate]; TDI was detected using a regulatory method but not with an early screening method. We show here that the different solvents present in the respective studies, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, screening method) versus methanol or water (regulatory method), were responsible for the different TDI results. We further demonstrate why DMSO, present at the levels of 0.2% and 0.5% in the incubations, masked the TDI effect. In addition to the TDI experiments performed in HLM, TDI studies with AZD3839 were performed in pooled human hepatocytes (Hhep) from different suppliers, using DMSO, methanol, or water. The results from these experiments show no TDI or attenuated TDI effect, depending on the supplier. Metabolite identification of the compound dissolved in DMSO, methanol, or water shows different profiles after incubations with the different systems (HLM or Hhep), which may explain the differences in the TDI outcomes. Thorough investigations of the biotransformation of AZD3839 have been performed to find the reactive pathway causing the TDI of CYP3A4, and are presented here. Our findings show that the in vitro risk profile for drug-drug interactions potential of AZD3839 is very much dependent on the chosen test system and the experimental conditions used. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Haglund J.,Astrazeneca |
Haglund J.,MetaSafe AB |
Halldin M.M.,Astrazeneca |
Halldin M.M.,Karolinska Institute Science Park |
And 9 more authors.
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2014
The recent stream of regulatory guidelines on the Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites by the FDA in 2008 and the ICH in 2009 and 2012 has cast light on the importance of qualifying metabolite exposure as part of the safety evaluation of new drugs and has provided a much needed framework for the drug safety researcher. Since then, numerous publications interpreting the practicalities of the guidelines have appeared in the literature focusing on strategic approaches and/or adaptation of modern analytical methodologies, e.g., NMR and AMS, for the identification and quantification of metabolites in the species used in preclinical safety assessments and in humans. Surprisingly, there are few literature accounts demonstrating how, in practice, a particular strategy or analytical method has been used to qualify drug metabolites during the safety evaluation of a drug during clinical development. At the same time as the initial FDA and ICH guideline releases, the neuroscience therapy area of AstraZeneca had a number of projects in clinical development, or approaching this phase, which gave the authors a scaffold upon which to build knowledge regarding the safety testing of drug metabolites. In this article, we present how the MIST strategy was developed to meet the guidelines. Pragmatic approaches have evolved from the experience learned in various projects in DMPK at AstraZeneca, Södertälje, Sweden. Our experience dictates that there is no single strategy for qualifying the safety of drug metabolites in humans; however, all activities should be tied to two unifying themes: first that the exposure to drug metabolites should be compared between species at repeated administration using the relative method or a similar one; and second that the internal regulatory documentation of the metabolite qualification should be agnostic to external criteria (guidelines), indication, dose given, and timing. © 2014 American Chemical Society.