Washnock R.,Freeport McMoRan Inc. |
Zarate G.,Anglo American |
Scheffel R.,Metallurgical Consultant
2016 SME Annual Conference and Expo: The Future for Mining in a Data-Driven World | Year: 2016
The second survey of global copper leaching operations has been completed, the data published in 1998 has been updated. A survey questionnaire was sent to 40 identified copper leach operations around the world including those leach properties still in operation that responded to the 1998 survey. This paper lists the results of 26 operations that responded to the survey. Selected information from the survey is represented in graphical form.
MacKey P.J.,P.J. Mackey Technology Inc. |
Wraith A.E.,Metallurgical Consultant
Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, Section C: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy | Year: 2012
The world's first copper electrorefinery started production in 1869 at Pembrey in South Wales and was closed in March 1912. Refining principles pioneered there form the foundation of modern electrorefining practice. A cathode recovered at closure and now in the collection of the Swansea Museum, Wales, is the earliest authenticated British example of electrorefined copper as cathode. This unique artefact was sampled and assayed to establish its composition and market quality and to help elucidate refining capability at that time. The sampling method was based upon drilling into the edge of the cathode plate in order to protect its display integrity; assaying was by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the present received method for refined copper. Comparison with contemporaneous cathode and wire bar assays indicates that the Pembrey cathode would have been competitive in the copper market of its day, but with questions about its relatively high levels of silver and, to a lesser extent, arsenic. © 2012 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and The AusIMM.
Cobb H.,Metallurgical Consultant
Advanced Materials and Processes | Year: 2010
Walter Percy Chrysler, the vice president and General Manager of General Motors, contacted William Van Alen to build the tallest building in the world. Construction began in December 1928, and the steel skeleton was soon rising at the rate of four stories a week. Meanwhile, George Orhstrom, president of the Bank of Manhattan, announced that he would be erecting a building at 40 Wall Street that would top out at 840 feet, 32 feet taller than Chrysler's goal. Van Alen then announced his plans to build to 842 feet, which was a scant 24 inches higher than that announced for the 40 Wall Street building. The building had an area of one million square feet, and had thirty-two elevators. When fully occupied, it would house 10,000 tenants and employees, not to mention thousands of visitors. The custodial staff would number 350, and the building would be cleaned daily with a modern central vacuum cleaning system.
Wheatcroft M.,Metallurgical Consultant |
Miller D.,ABS Pacific
Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Advances in Welding Science and Technology for Construction, Energy and Transportation, AWST 2010, held in Conj. with the 63rd Annual Assembly of IIW 2010 | Year: 2010
A key element in the quality of a ship is the quality of its weldments. This paper will show how some of the current rules and regulations governing the quality of welded ship and offshore structures were conceived and grew, discuss a variety of structures and speculate on future directions concerning the fabrication of ships and other marine vehicles and structures. Merchant ships and buoyant and fixed offshore structures have distinctly different requirements as regards materials and welding. These differences are not only the result of different operating environments. Legal climate, regulatory philosophy, service history, life cycle economics, technological innovation, and political expediency have all played roles in shaping requirements in the marine and offshore industries. Changes in operating environments (for example deeper, rougher and colder waters), the internationalization of litigation, demands for faster ships, the transportation of hydrocarbons in different forms as well as the continuing drive for greater productivity and more efficient designs place challenges on maintaining structures fit for the purpose of safely going to sea.
Gaylard P.G.,Metallurgical Consultant |
Randolph N.G.,United Investments |
Wortley C.M.G.,Metallurgical Consultant
Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy | Year: 2014
In the wake of the financial crisis that affected world markets in 2002, there has been an increasing international focus on corporate governance. Various corporate governance codes of practice have been introduced, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation in the USA, the Combined Code in the UK, and King III in South Africa. This focus on corporate governance has increased since the most recent financial crisis in 2008, the effects of which are still being felt world-wide. In the mining and minerals industry, reliable metal accounting is essential to sound corporate governance and is also becoming a focus of increased attention and concern, particularly as the figures generated by the metal accounting system feed directly into the financial accounts of mining companies. Mass measurement, sampling, and analysis provide the input data for the metal accounting system and sound corporate governance requires that the procedures used are based on best practice and that the data generated is accurate and handled correctly, transparently, and consistently to produce the accounting reports. The AMIRA Code of Practice for Metal Accounting has been widely adopted in the industry as a means to achieve this, and the compilers of the Code have conducted numerous metal accounting audits at operations, both in South Africa and abroad. These audits have shown that there is a real need for such a code of practice. © The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2014.
Song H.Y.,Ohio State University |
Evans G.M.,Metallurgical consultant |
Babu S.S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining | Year: 2014
Often, scatter in mechanical properties of multi-pass steel weldments is qualitatively attributed to the underlying heterogeneous microstructure brought about by spatial variations of multiple thermal cycles. In this research, a method for quantitative heterogeneity calculation based on measured variations of microstructure and hardness throughout the multi-pass weld metals including various reheated regions was explored. Published data from multi-pass welds with controlled titanium additions (7-32 wt ppm) were correlated to comprehensive microstructure characterization. The scatter in 7 wt ppm Ti steel welds was larger than that of 32 wt ppm Ti steel welds. This change in scatter is correlated to spatial distributions of microstructural heterogeneity parameter, rather than the average value of heterogeneity parameter for the whole weldment. © 2014 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.
Birol F.,Metallurgical Consultant |
Birol Y.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center
Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology | Year: 2014
Corrosion of twin belt and twin roll cast AlMg3Mn sheet samples was investigated. The AlMg3Mn sheet samples submitted to immersion tests undergo alkaline pitting around Al-Fe and ac-Al(Fe,Mn)Si intermetallic particles in the twin roll and twin belt cast samples respectively. The weight loss is higher in the latter and increases with increasing homogenisation temperature for both groups. The twin roll cast AlMg3Mn samples reveal very few and small alkaline corrosion pits and hence much less weight loss in the immersion tests. The pitting activity is governed in the immersion tests by themicrogalvanic corrosion activities between the intermetallic particles and the matrix while the anodic particles were inactive. © 2014 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.