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Edogawa-ku, Japan

Nishio S.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Abe M.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Ito H.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2015

Anagliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that has been available in Japan since 2012. Because anagliptin is not generally used in countries other than Japan, there are only a small number of reports investigating the effects of anagliptin. In the present article, we review the safety and efficacy of anagliptin according to data obtained from preclinical trials and postmarketing studies. The usual dose of anagliptin is 200 mg daily, and increases in the dose up to 400 mg daily have been approved in cases in which the blood glucose–lowering effect is insufficient. In a Phase II trial, the reduction in the HbA1c values from baseline after 12 weeks monotherapy with 200 mg and 400 mg of daily anagliptin was 0.75%±0.50% and 0.82%±0.46%, respectively, and more than 40% of the subjects receiving anagliptin at a dose of 200 mg or 400 mg daily achieved an HbA1c level below 6.9%. Furthermore, the levels of HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and postprandial blood glucose were significantly decreased at 52 weeks compared with the baseline values in a Phase III trial investigating the effects of anagliptin included in combination therapy with other oral antidiabetic agents. In a pooled analysis of Phase II and Phase II/III trials, the goal achievement rates for an HbA1c level below 7.0% at 12 weeks were 40.3%, 39.4%, 30.0%, and 34.8% in the patients treated with anagliptin combined with α-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and biguanides, respectively. Meanwhile, the serum lipid concentrations significantly improved after the administration of anagliptin in a pooled analysis of Phase III trials, and no serious adverse effects have been reported in preclinical trials. Therefore, the use of anagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes is considered to be safe and effective for both monotherapy and combination therapy. © 2015 Nishio et al. Source


Takeuchi Y.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Ito H.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Oshikiri K.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Antoku S.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | And 3 more authors.
Internal Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective To clarify the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to assess whether NAFLD is related to angiopathy. Methods The study included 388 Japanese type 2 diabetic outpatients without viral hepatitis. The main outcome measures were angiopathy and NAFLD. Results The 388 subjects were divided into two subgroups based on alcohol consumption. Fatty liver was recognized in 36 of the 142 drinking patients (25%). There was no association of fatty liver disease with diabetic macro- or microangiopathy in these patients. Fatty liver disease (namely, NAFLD) was recognized in 77 of the 246 non-drinking patients (31%). Type 2 diabetic patients with NAFLD had a significantly younger age, higher body mass index level, higher levels of HbA1c, total cholesterol and triglyceride, lower HDL-C level, higher prevalence rates of hypercholesterolemia and obesity than counterparts without NAFLD. In addition, individuals in the elderly (≧65 years) non-drinking group with NAFLD had a significantly higher prevalence rates of diabetic macroangiopathy, coronary heart disease and thicker intima-media thickness level than their counterparts without NAFLD. The logistic regression analysis showed that NAFLD is an independent predictor of diabetic macroangiopathy. Conclusion NAFLD was associated with an increased prevalence of diabetic macroangiopathy and coronary heart disease in elderly patients. In addition, NAFLD is an independent predictor for diabetic macroangiopathy. These findings suggest that type 2 diabetic patients with NAFLD should be considered as a high risk group for developing macroangiopathy, even if macroangiopathy is not clinically detected. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine. Source


Ito H.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Oshikiri K.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Mifune M.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Abe M.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2012

Aims: A new classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) in 2011. The major point of revision of this classification was the introduction of a two-dimensional staging of the CKD according to the level of albuminuria in addition to the GFR level. Furthermore, the previous CKD stage 3 was subdivided into two stages (G3a and G3b). We examined the prevalence of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the new classification. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2018 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results: All of the diabetic micro- and macroangiopathies significantly more common in the later stages of both the GFR and albuminuria. The proportion of subjects with diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease was significantly higher in the G3b group than in the G3a group. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, which is one of the surrogate markers for atherosclerosis, was also significantly greater in the G3b group compared to the G3a group. Conclusion: The subdivision of the G3 stage in the revised classification proposed by the KDIGO is useful to evaluate the risk for diabetic vascular complications. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Ito H.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Mifune M.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Antoku S.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Ishida H.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | And 2 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2010

Background: To study the relationship between the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery and the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 338 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The carotid IMT was measured using an ultrasonographic examination.Results: The mean carotid IMT was 1.06 ± 0.27 mm, and 42% of the subjects showed IMT thickening (≥ 1.1 mm). Cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease were frequent in the patients with IMT thickening. The carotid IMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of CKD (0.87 ± 0.19 mm in stage 1, 1.02 ± 0.26 mm in stage 2, 1.11 ± 0.26 mm in stage 3, and 1.11 ± 0.27 mm in stage 4+5). However, the IMT was not significantly different among the various stages of diabetic nephropathy. The IMT was significantly greater in the diabetic patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension. The IMT positively correlated with the age, the duration of diabetes mellitus, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities (baPWV), and negatively correlated with the eGFR. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, the eGFR and the baPWV were independently associated with the carotid IMT.Conclusions: Our study is the first report showing a relationship between the carotid IMT and the renal parameters including eGFR and the stages of diabetic nephropathy with a confirmed association between the IMT and diabetic macroangiopathy. Our study further confirms the importance of intensive examinations for the early detection of atherosclerosis and positive treatments for hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, as well as hyperglycaemia are necessary when a reduced eGFR is found in diabetic patients. © 2010 Ito et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Ito H.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Mifune M.,Metabolism and Kidney Disease | Mifune M.,Dialysis Center | Matsuyama E.,Dialysis Center | And 9 more authors.
Diabetes Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Vildagliptin can be used in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal impairment. However, there have been few reports investigating the clinical effectiveness of vildagliptin in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis. No previous studies have evaluated the use of vildagliptin in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The authors determined the usefulness of vildagliptin for treating type 2 diabetic patients receiving chronic dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis. Methods: A retrospective study of ten diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and five diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis who were treated with 50 mg/day of vildagliptin was performed. Clinical parameters were investigated for a period of 6 months starting from the vildagliptin therapy. Results: The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were significantly reduced after baseline in both the peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis groups, whereas the hemoglobin levels did not change during the follow-up period. The mean change in the HbA1c level (DHbA1c) was -0.6 ± 0.9% and -0.5 ± 0.7% among the patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, respectively. The glycated albumin (GA) levels were also significantly reduced compared with baseline in the peritoneal dialysis group, although the serum albumin levels did not change. The mean change in the GA level (DGA) was -3.4 ± 3.1% and -2.1 ± 2.5% among the patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis, respectively. Stepwise multivariate analyses demonstrated the level of HbA1c at baseline to be significantly associated with the DHbA1c and that the level of GA at baseline was significantly associated with the DGA. Conclusion: Vildagliptin exhibits effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. The degree of improvement in the HbA1c and GA levels was dependent on these levels at baseline, similar to the findings of previous reports of subjects without end-stage kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

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