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Hofman C.,Tel Aviv University | Rosenthal T.,Tel Aviv University | Winaver J.,University of Sfax | Rubinstein I.,University of Sfax | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension | Year: 2011

The Cohen-Rosenthal Diabetic Hypertensive rat (CRDH) is a unique animal model in which genetic hypertension and diabetes developed after crossbreeding of Cohen diabetic rats sensitive substrain (CDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The present study examined: 1) The acute effects of ET-1 on the systemic and renal hemodynamics in CRDH rats, CDR, and SHR; 2) The expression of ET-1 and its receptors in the renal tissue of CRDH rats. Intravenous injection of ET-1 (1.0 nmol/kg) into anesthetized SHR rats resulted in a significant immediate depressor response (mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 165 ± 3 to 124 ± 12 mmHg, p < 0.0001) followed by a minor hypertensive phase (MAP increased to 170 ± 2 mmHg). Simultaneously, the administration of ET-1 caused a significant decrease in renal blood flow (RBF) from 5.8 ± 0.9 ml/min to 3.2 ± 0.5 ml/min (p = 0.026). These responses were blunted in CRDH rats and CDR. Analysis of intra-renal blood flow by laser-Doppler in CRDH rats revealed that ET-1 injection caused a decrease in cortical blood flow (δ = -12 ± 2.9%). However, in contrast to its well-known renal medullary vasodilatory effect, ET-1 produced a significant decline in the medulla blood flow (δ = -17.5 ± 3.4%) (p = 0.0125). These findings suggest that CDR and CRDH rats have reduced sensitivity to vascular and renal action of ET-1. Furthermore, in the CRDH rats, the expected ET-1-induced medullary vasodilatation was abolished and even reversed into prolonged vasoconstriction. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Younis F.,Tel Aviv University | Stern N.,Tel Aviv University | Stern N.,Metabolism and Hypertension Institute | Limor R.,Tel Aviv University | And 4 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2010

The importance of hypertension treatment has expanded beyond blood pressure management to include additional risk factors, mainly diabetes. It was considered of interest to test the effect of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor 1 antagonist and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ partial agonist, on Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive nonobese (CRDH) rats, a unique model combining both pathologies. Its effect was examined on fat-derived and inflammatory agents in CRDH. To determine the extent of the drug's peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ modulating beneficial metabolic actions, results were compared with those obtained with valsartan and rosiglitazone in CRDH and Cohen diabetic rat (CDR). Telmisartan and valsartan were given in drinking water at 3 and 12 mg/kg/d, whereas rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/d) was given as food admixture for a period of 5 months. Blood pressure, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were examined. Telmisartan and valsartan significantly (P < .01) reduced blood pressure, whereas telmisartan and rosiglitazone considerably reduced blood glucose levels to normoglycemic levels (P < .01) in these 2 strains. Insulin levels were not affected by telmisartan and valsartan but were slightly reduced by rosiglitazone in CDR. In contrast to valsartan, adiponectin was significantly (60%, P < .01) increased by telmisartan in both CDR and CRDH, whereas rosiglitazone induced a 60% and 180% increase in CRDH and CDR animals, respectively, on day 30 of treatment. Co-treatment with GW9662 averted telmisartan-induced rise of adiponectin. Tumor necrosis factor α declined in telmisartan-treated rats, less so with rosiglitazone, but not valsartan. Telmisartan also induced downsizing of epididymal adipocytes compared with valsartan. Leptin levels were significantly increased by valsartan (P < .05) but reduced by telmisartan and rosiglitazone. The telmisartan-induced increase in adiponectin was most probably associated with a decrease in glucose and tumor necrosis factor α levels. Therefore, in addition to its hypotensive effect, telmisartan demonstrated beneficial thiazolidinedione-like effects. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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