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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Rosa M.M.,Hospital de Santa Maria | Dias T.,Diabetes and Metabolism Unit
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2014

Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ogunmola O.J.,Cardiac Center | Akintomide A.O.,Obafemi Awolowo University | Olamoyegun A.M.,Diabetes and Metabolism Unit
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: The Tei index is a Doppler-derived myocardial performance index. It is a measure of the combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance of both the left and right ventricles. The incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing globally, and its severity can be clinically assessed using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification and more objectively using echocardiographic assessment of systolic and diastolic functions. Thus, a measure of the combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance could be a useful predictor of the severity of the clinical status of patients with HF. Results: Seventy-five newly presenting patients with HF of NYHA class II to IV and 60 normal controls were consecutively recruited. Using conventional two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography techniques, the left ventricular parameters assessed were the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), ejection time (ET), ejection fraction (EF), and end-diastolic volume (EDV). The Tei index was determined using the formula IVCT + IVRT/ET. The mean Tei index of patients was significantly higher than that of controls (0.884 ± 0.321 vs. 0.842 ± 0.14; p < 0.001). The Tei index ranged from 0.33 to 1.94 in patients and from 0.56 to 1.24 in controls. The mean EF was lower in patients than in controls (50.47% ± 19.01% vs. 68.35% ± 7.75%; p = 0.001). The mean EDV was higher in patients than in controls (171.39 ± 100.96 vs. 94.15 ± 28.54; p < 0.001). Comparison of the mean Tei indices of patients with HF of NYHA classes II, III, and IV showed statistically significant differences among all three groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The Tei index seems to be a clinically relevant indicator of cardiac function. It is reflective of the severity of HF as clinically assessed using the NYHA functional classification in patients with HF. © 2013 Ogunmola et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Vaccaro O.,University of Naples Federico II | Masulli M.,University of Naples Federico II | Bonora E.,University of Verona | Del Prato S.,University of Pisa | And 7 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2012

Background and aims: Metformin is the first-line therapy in type 2 diabetes. In patients inadequately controlled with metformin, the addition of a sulfonylurea or pioglitazone are equally plausible options to improve glycemic control. However, these drugs have profound differences in their mechanism of action, side effects, and impact on cardiovascular risk factors. A formal comparison of these two therapies in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is lacking. The TOSCA.IT study was designed to explore the effects of adding pioglitazone or a sulfonylurea on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled with metformin. Methods: Multicentre, randomized, open label, parallel group trial of 48 month duration. Type 2 diabetic subjects, 50-75 years, BMI 20-45 Kg/m2, on secondary failure to metformin monotherapy will be randomized to add-on a sulfonylurea or pioglitazone. The primary efficacy outcome is a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization. Principal secondary outcome is a composite ischemic endpoint of sudden death, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke, endovascular or surgical intervention on the coronary, leg or carotid arteries, major amputations. Side effects, quality of life and economic costs will also be evaluated. Efficacy, safety, tolerability, and study conduct will be monitored by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board. End points will be adjudicated by an independent external committee. Conclusions: TOSCA.IT is the first on-going study investigating the head-to-head comparison of adding a sulfonylurea or pioglitazone to existing metformin treatment in terms of hard cardiovascular outcomes. Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT00700856. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Suraci C.,Diabetes Unit | Mulas F.,Diabetes Unit | Rossi M.C.,Consorzio Mario Negri Sud | Gentile S.,The Second University of Naples | Giorda C.B.,Diabetes and Metabolism Unit
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2012

Early intensive therapy in type 2 diabetes can prevent complications. Nevertheless, metabolic control is often sub-optimal in newly diagnosed patients. This webbased survey aimed to evaluate opinions of physicians about treatment, priorities, and barriers in the care of patients first referred to diabetes clinics. Data on physician attitudes toward therapeutic preferences for two clinical case models (same clinical profile, except HbA1c levels of 8.6 and 7.3% at the first access, respectively) were collected. Participants were asked to rank from 1 (most important) to 6 (least important) a list of priorities and barriers associated with the care of new patients. Overall, 593 physicians participated. In both case models, metformin and education were primary options, although their combination with other classes of drugs varied substantially. Main priorities were "to teach the patient how to cope with the disease" and "to achieve HbA1c target"; main barriers were "lack of time" and "long waiting list". At multivariate analyses, physicians from the South of Italy had a twofold higher likelihood to attribute a rank 1-2 to organizational barriers than those operating in the North (South vs. North: OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1; Center vs. North: OR: 2.4; 95% CI 0.9-3.2). In the absence of a widely accepted evidence-based therapeutic algorithm driving the therapeutic choices according to the patient characteristics, prescriptions vary according to physician preferences. Education is perceived as a key-strategy, but organizational barriers and geographic disparities are an obstacle. These findings can drive new strategies to reduce clinical inertia, attitudes variability, and geographic disparities. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Akesson C.,Cellular Autoimmunity Unit | Uvebrant K.,Cellular Autoimmunity Unit | Oderup C.,Stanford University | Lynch K.,Diabetes and Celiac Unit | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2010

Approximately 10% of the patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have detectable serum levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies (GADA). These patients usually progress to insulin dependency within a few years, and are classified as being latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). A decrease in the frequency of peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells has been reported recently in recent-onset T1D and in high-risk individuals prior to the clinical onset. As NK cells in LADA patients have been investigated scarcely, the aim of this study was to use multicolour flow cytometry to define possible deficiencies or abnormalities in the frequency or activation state of NK cells in LADA patients prior to insulin dependency. All patients were GADA-positive and metabolically compensated, but none were insulin-dependent at the time blood samples were taken. LADA patients exhibited a significant decrease in NK cell frequency in peripheral blood compared to healthy individuals (P = 0·0018), as reported previously for recent-onset T1D patients. Interestingly, NKG2D expression was increased significantly (P < 0·0001), whereas killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)3DL1 expression was decreased (P < 0·0001) within the NK cell population. These observations highlight a defect in both frequency and activation status of NK cells in LADA patients and suggest that this immunological alteration may contribute to the development of autoimmune diabetes by affecting peripheral tolerance. Indeed, recent evidence has demonstrated a regulatory function for NK cells in autoimmunity. Moreover, the decrease in NK cell number concords with observations obtained in recent-onset T1D, implying that similar immunological dysfunctions may contribute to the progression of both LADA and T1D. © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

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