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PubMed | Diabetes and Metabolism and. and New York University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of biological chemistry | Year: 2016

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is characterized by a heightened antibody (Ab) response to pancreatic islet self-antigens, which is a biomarker of progressive islet pathology. We recently identified a novel antibody to clade B serpin that reduces islet-associated T cell accumulation and is linked to the delayed onset of T1D. As natural immunity to clade B arises early in life, we hypothesized that it may influence islet development during that time. To test this possibility healthy young Balb/c male mice were injected with serpin B13 mAb or IgG control and examined for the number and cellularity of pancreatic islets by immunofluorescence and FACS. Beta cell proliferation was assessed by measuring nucleotide analog 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-EdU) incorporation into the DNA and islet Reg gene expression was measured by real time PCR. Human studies involved measuring anti-serpin B13 autoantibodies by Luminex. We found that injecting anti-serpin B13 monoclonal Ab enhanced beta cell proliferation and Reg gene expression, induced the generation of 80 pancreatic islets per animal, and ultimately led to increase in the beta cell mass. These findings are relevant to human T1D because our analysis of subjects just diagnosed with T1D revealed an association between baseline anti-serpin activity and slower residual beta cell function decline in the first year after the onset of diabetes. Our findings reveal a new role for the anti-serpin immunological response in promoting adaptive changes in the endocrine pancreas and suggests that enhancement of this response could potentially help impede the progression of T1D in humans.

PubMed | Predictive Analytics and Comparative Effectiveness Center, Duke University, Diabetes and Metabolism and, Taibah University and Tufts University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2016

Controversy exists over the disparate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations between black and white Americans.We sought to determine whether there are differences in total and directly measured free 25(OH)D concentrations between black and white American adults and how daily supplementation with cholecalciferol changes these concentrations.Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted with the use of data from 2 placebo-controlled, randomized trials at 2 academic medical centers in the United States: CaDDM (Calcium and Vitamin D in Type 2 Diabetes) and DDM2 (Vitamin D for Established Type 2 Diabetes). A total of 208 subjects with pre- or well-controlled diabetes with a mean age of 59.1 y and mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 31.6 were randomly assigned to receive daily cholecalciferol supplementation at 1 of 2 doses (2000 or 4000 IU) or a matching placebo for 16 wk. We measured serum total 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) by 2 different immunoassays (with the use of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies), parathyroid hormone, and albumin. Free 25(OH)D concentration was directly measured and calculated.Blacks had lower total 25(OH)D concentrations than whites [adjusted median: 20.3 ng/mL (95% CI: 16.2, 24.5 ng/mL) compared with 26.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 25.2, 28.1 ng/mL), respectively; P = 0.026)], and a higher proportion of blacks had total 25(OH)D concentrations <20 ng/mL (46% compared with 19%, respectively; P < 0.001). Directly measured free 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in blacks than in whites [adjusted median: 4.5 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.7, 5.4 ng/mL) compared with 5.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 5.4, 5.9 ng/mL), respectively; P = 0.044] and were strongly correlated with total 25(OH)D without an effect of race. DBP was lower in blacks when measured by the monoclonal but not the polyclonal antibody immunoassay. Cholecalciferol supplementation increased total and measured free 25(OH)D concentrations proportionally to the dose and without a difference between races.The relation between free and total 25(OH)D did not vary systematically by race in this multiracial population with pre- or well-controlled diabetes. The results need to be replicated in additional cohorts before concluding that the clinical assessment of vitamin D status in blacks and whites should follow a single standard. The CaDDM and DDM2 trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00436475 and NCT01736865, respectively.

PubMed | Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV and., Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, University of Rostock and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical chemistry | Year: 2016

Differentiating patients with primary aldosteronism caused by aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) from those with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is essential for choice of therapeutic intervention, relies on adrenal venous sampling (AVS)-based measurements of aldosterone and cortisol. We assessed the utility of LC-MS/MS-based steroid profiling to stratify patients with primary aldosteronism.Fifteen adrenal steroids were measured by LC-MS/MS in peripheral and adrenal venous plasma from AVS studies for 216 patients with primary aldosteronism at 3 tertiary referral centers. Ninety patients were diagnosed with BAH and 126 with APAs on the basis of immunoassay-derived adrenal venous aldosterone lateralization ratios.Among 119 patients confirmed to have APAs at follow-up, LC-MS/MS-derived lateralization ratios of aldosterone normalized to cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione were all higher (P < 0.0001) than immunoassay-derived ratios. The hybrid steroids, 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol, also showed lateralized secretion in 76% and 35% of patients with APAs. Adrenal venous concentrations of glucocorticoids and androgens were bilaterally higher in patients with BAH than in those with APAs. Consequently, peripheral plasma concentrations of 18-oxocortisol were 8.5-fold higher, whereas concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were lower in patients with APAs than in those with BAH. Correct classification of 80% of cases of APAs vs BAH was thereby possible by use of a combination of steroids in peripheral plasma.LC-MS/MS-based steroid profiling during AVS achieves higher aldosterone lateralization ratios in patients with APAs than immunoassay. LC-MS/MS also enables multiple measures for discriminating unilateral from bilateral aldosterone excess, with potential use of peripheral plasma for subtype classification.

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