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Narayanan M.P.,Metabolic Disorders Laboratory | Kannan V.,Metabolic Disorders Laboratory | Vinayan K.P.,Amrita Institute of Medical science | Vasudevan D.M.,Metabolic Disorders Laboratory
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Organic acid disorders are inherited metabolic disorders in which organic acids accumulate in tissues and biological fluids of affected individuals. Classical organic acidurias include methylmalonic aciduria, propionic aciduria, isovaleric aciduria and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). They are considered the most frequent metabolic disorders among severely ill children. Patients frequently present with acute symptoms early in life. 420 cases clinically suspected to have organic aciduria, with upper age limit of 12 years for a 2-year period (January 2007-December 2008) were enrolled into this study. Metabolic acidosis and neurological symptoms were the most common signs. Screening tests and thin layer chromatography were done for detection of organic acidurias. Identification and quantitation of organic acids in urine and quantification of amino acids in blood were done by high performance liquid chromatography. Out of 420 patients, 45 patients (10.7%) were found to have organic acidurias. 15 cases of methylmalonic aciduria, 16 cases of propionic aciduria, 13 cases of MSUD, and one case of isovaleric aciduria were diagnosed. Results demonstrate the importance of testing for organic acidurias. Since organic aciduria may cause irreversible brain damage if not treated, we recommend selective screening amongst severely ill children despite implied extra costs. © 2011 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India.

Narayanan M.P.,Metabolic Disorders Laboratory | Menon K.N.,Amrita Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Vasudevan D.M.,Metabolic Disorders Laboratory
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1α, E1β and E2 subunits of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. Because disease causing mutations play a major role in the development of the disease, prenatal diagnosis at gestational level may have significance in making decisions by parents. Thus, this study was aimed to screen South Indian MSUD patients for mutations and assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MSUD by conventional biochemical screening such as urine analysis by DNPH test, thin layer chromatography for amino acids and blood amino acid quantification by HPLC were selected for mutation analysis. The entire coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed for mutations by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were seen in 43% of the total ten patients, while disease-causing DBT gene mutation was observed only in 14%. Three patients displayed no mutations. Novel mutations were c.130C>T in BCKDHA gene, c. 599C>T and c.121_122delAC in BCKDHB gene and c.190G>A in DBT gene. Notably, patients harbouring these mutations were non-responsive to thiamine supplementation and other treatment regimens and might have a worse prognosis as compared to the patients not having such mutations. Thus, identification of these mutations may have a crucial role in the treatment as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms in MSUD.

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