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San Donato Milanese, Italy

Briganti S.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Ermetici F.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Malavazos A.E.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Dozio E.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition | Year: 2015

We studied the effect of soluble fiber-enriched products on anthropometric and biochemical variables in 30 healthy non-obese, non-diabetic subjects. This was a randomized, controlled crossover, single-blind, dietary intervention study performed for 8 weeks. Subjects received an isocaloric diet with fiber-enriched products for the first 4 weeks and with regular flour products for the following 4 weeks, or vice versa. Weight, height, measures of fat distribution (waist, hip circumference), glucose, insulin and triglycerides were measured at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. BMI and insulin sensitivity indices were calculated. Weight and BMI decreased in the first period of isocaloric diet in both groups, regardless of the type of flour consumed (weight p<0.01, p<0.001 respectively; BMI p = 0.01, p<0.001 respectively). At the end of the 8 weeks, weight and BMI further decreased in the group consuming the fiber-enriched diet (p<0.01). Insulin resistance, estimated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment index and the Lipid Accumulation Product index, improved in all subjects after the fiber-enriched flour diet (p = 0.03, p = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, an isocaloric diet supplemented with fiber-enriched products may improve measures of fatness and insulin sensitivity in healthy non-obese non-diabetic subjects. We might hypothesize a similar effect also in subjects with metabolic abnormalities. © 2015 JCBN.

Tomasoni L.,University of Milan | Sitia S.,University of Milan | Borghi C.,University of Bologna | Cicero A.F.G.,University of Bologna | And 11 more authors.
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2010

A large body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic of patients with arterial hypertension. As functional abnormalities lead to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, this early step of atherogenesis is potentially reversible.In addition to reducing blood pressure, the major families of anti-hypertensive drugs have a number of pleiotropic effects that could improve endothelial function. In particular, the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, and so drugs capable of limiting the dangerous effects of this hormonal axis, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and renin inhibitors, could help prevent/delay/reverse the atherosclerotic process. New third-generation β-blockers and 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors may affect endothelial function.Furthermore, the HMGCoA-reductase inhibitors currently used to reduce cholesterol levels have major pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects.The preservation or recovery of endothelial function in hypertensive patients is crucial to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and the onset of cardiovascular events. This review focuses on the ancillary effects of hypertensive drugs and HMGCoA-reductase inhibitors that go beyond lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Dozio E.,University of Milan | Malavazos A.E.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Vianello E.,University of Milan | Briganti S.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which signals via a specific alpha receptor subunit (IL-15R a). Increased IL-15 level has been observed in cardiovascular patients and IL-15 immunoreactivity has been detected at vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Due to the association between adipose tissue distribution, inflammation and coronary artery disease (CAD), we quantified IL-15 and IL-15Rα in CAD patients with different adiposity and adipose tissue distribution and we evaluated whether epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a visceral fat depot surrounding and infiltrating myocardium, may be a source of both molecules. IL-15 and IL-15Rα proteins were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Gene expression of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in EAT depots was evaluated by one colour microarray platform. EAT thickness was measured by echocardiography. Plasmatic IL-15 and IL-15Rα levels were higher in CAD than non-CAD patients. After classification according to adipose tissue distribution, IL-15 was higher in CAD patients with increased abdominal adiposity. Increased level of IL-15Rα was observed both in CAD and non-CAD patients with increased abdominal fat. EAT was a source of IL-15 and IL-15Rα and their expression was higher in CAD patients with increased EAT thickness. In conclusion, our data suggest that circulating levels of IL-15 and IL-15Rα seem to reflect visceral distribution of adipose tissue and that EAT may be a potential source of both IL-15 and IL-15Rα. Future studies on the relationship between IL-15, visceral fat and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques could help to better understand the complex biology of this cytokine. © 2014 Dozio et al.

Dozio E.,University of Milan | Briganti S.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Vianello E.,University of Milan | Dogliotti G.,University of Milan | And 8 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Background and aims: Alterations in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) biology (i.e. increased fat thickness and inflammation) have been described in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. In addition to its classic role in the regulation of calcium-phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D may exert immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Whether EAT inflammation may be linked to vitamin D deficiency is still unknown. In the present study we evaluated plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) level in CAD patients and its relationship with EAT ability to locally metabolize vitamin D, EAT expression of inflammation-related molecules and EAT thickness. Methods and results: Plasma 25OHD level was quantified by an immunoluminometric assay. EAT expression of inflammation-related molecules (MCP-1, PTX3, TNFα, IL-6, adiponectin), vitamin D receptor (VDR), CYP27B1 (25OHD-activating enzyme) and CYP24A1 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-metabolizing enzyme) was performed by microarray. EAT thickness was quantified by echocardiography.Median plasma 25OHD level was 10.85ng/mL and 83% of CAD patients displayed 25OHD level below 20ng/mL. At decreasing plasma 25OHD concentration, we observed a down-regulation in CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 level and an increased expression of VDR and pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, PTX3, TNFα, IL-6) at EAT level. No correlation was observed between plasma 25OHD level and EAT thickness. Conclusion: Our data suggest an increased activation of inflammatory pathways at EAT level possibly related to systemic and local vitamin D deficiency in CAD patients. Whether maintaining an optimal vitamin D status may be helpful to reduce EAT inflammation and to prevent CAD and its progression needs further investigation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..

Ermetici F.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Zelaschi R.F.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Briganti S.,Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Dozio E.,University of Milan | And 9 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2016

Objective To evaluate whether a school-based multicomponent educational program could improve adiposity measures in middle-school adolescents. Methods A non-randomized controlled pilot study was conducted in six state middle schools (487 adolescents, 11-15 years) in townships in an urban area around Milan, three schools (n = 262 adolescents) being assigned to the intervention group and three schools (n = 225 adolescents) to the control group. The two-school-year intervention included changes in the school environment (alternative healthy vending machines, educational posters) and individual reinforcement tools (school lessons, textbook, text messages, pedometers, re-usable water bottles). The main outcome measure was change in BMI z-score. The secondary outcomes were changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and behavioral habits. Results The intervention was associated with a significant difference in BMI z-score (-0.18 ± 0.03, P<0.01) and in WHtR (-0.04 ± 0.002, P < 0.001), after controlling for baseline covariates. Subgroup analysis showed the maximum association between the intervention and the difference in BMI z-score for girls with overweight/obesity. Physical activity increased and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy snacks decreased in adolescents after the intervention. Conclusions A school-based multicomponent intervention conducted at both environmental and individual levels may be effective for reducing adiposity measures mainly in adolescents with overweight/obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

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