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Dodiuk-Gad R.P.,University of Toronto | Dodiuk-Gad R.P.,Haemek Medical Center | Ish-Shalom S.,Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit | Ish-Shalom S.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Shear N.H.,University of Toronto
International Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Background: The potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of systemic glucocorticoids have led to their wide use in the treatment of dermatologic diseases. However, glucocorticoids have been designated the "archetypal double-edged sword of medicine" as a result of their various potential adverse side effects. Dermatologists face major challenges in their usage and require knowledge of both the risks related to their usage and strategies with which to manage them. Objectives: This brief review includes an evidence-based, strategic approach to the general risk management of systemic glucocorticoids with a focus on preventing glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). Methods: We assess which classes of corticosteroid are most likely to provoke allergic cross-reactions and outline the mechanism for glucocorticoid resistance. We examine how glucocorticoids both help and impair normal physiology. Results: Five reactivity groups are defined, based on the structural and clinical characteristics of glucocorticoids. Tests for allergy reactions and mechanisms for glucocorticoid resistance are described. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of GIOP are introduced. Conclusion: Glucocorticoids play an important teleologic role in maintaining blood glucose levels adequate for brain function by inducing a catabolic state through the production of carbohydrates at the expense of proteins and fat stores. It is hoped that the various recommendations for the protection of patients treated with systemic glucocorticoids will provide physicians with practical guidelines for prescribing. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

Segal E.,Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit | Segal E.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Felder S.,Sheba Medical Center | Haim N.,Rambam Health Care Campus | And 7 more authors.
Israel Medical Association Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Vitamin D status is not evaluated routinely in cancer patients with bone metastasis who are treated with bisphosphonates. Objectives: To assess the effect of vitamin D status on risk of hypocalcemia and quality of life in these patients. Methods: We performed laboratory tests for routine serum biochemistry, 25(OH)D, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers (CTX, P1NP) in 54 patients aged 57.5 ± 13 years treated with intravenous bisphosphonates. Results: Most of the patients (n=44, 77.8%) did not receive calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Their mean serum 25(OH)D levels (12.83 ± 6.86 ng/ml) correlated with vitamin D daily intake (P = 0.002). In 53 patients (98.1%) 25(OH) D levels were suboptimal (< 30 ng/ml). Albumin-corrected calcium levels correlated with plasma PTH (P = 0.001). No correlation was observed between daily calcium intake and serum calcium (P = 0.45). Hypocalcemia was observed in one patient. Mean plasma PTH was 88.5 ± 65 ng/L. Plasma PTH correlated negatively with 25(OH)D serum levels (P = 0.003) and positively with P1NP (P = 0.004). Albumincorrected calcium correlated negatively with P1NP (mean 126.9 ± 191 ng/ml) but not with CTX levels (mean 0.265 ± 0.1 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). There was no correlation among quality of life parameters, yearly sun exposure and 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.99). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in oncology patients with bone metastasis treated with bisphosphonates and might increase bone damage. Our results indicate a minor risk for the development of severe hypocalcemia in vitamin D-deficient patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy. Although vitamin D deficiency might have some effect on the quality of life in these patients, it was not proven significant.

Segal E.,Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit | Hochberg I.,Institute of Endocrinology | Weisman Y.,Tel Aviv University | Ish-Shalom S.,Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit | Ish-Shalom S.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2011

We present a 27-year-old woman with hypoparathyroidism following total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma, who presented postpartum during lactation with several vertebral osteoporotic fractures, increase in bone turnover markers, and measurable parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels. Cessations of lactation led to gradual decrease in bone turnover markers and PTHrP and improvement in bone mineral density. Pregnancy- and postpartum-associated osteoporosis is an uncommon condition characterized by the occurrence of fractures during late pregnancy or the puerperium. The patient presented postpartum with severe back pain and multiple vertebral fractures. Metabolic evaluation performed at presentation revealed hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, increased alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D insufficiency, normal serum protein immunoelectrophoresis, and a detectable level of PTHrP. Serum levels of bone turnover markers were markedly increased. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was severely reduced. After cessation of lactation, the PTHrP level became undetectable. Bone turnover markers gradually decreased to normal and bone mineral density improved. Several factors contributed to the reduced bone mass in this patient, including amenorrhea treated with oral contraceptives, suppressive levothyroxine treatment, and lactation of twins with increased PTHrP. Patients with severely reduced bone mass need surveillance during pregnancy and lactation and should possibly consider avoiding breastfeeding. Patients with hypoparathyroidism should temporarily reduce their alphacalcidiol dose while lactating. © 2011 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

Silva B.C.,Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit | Silva B.C.,Columbia University | Silva B.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Boutroy S.,Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Context: In the milder form of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), cancellous bone, represented by areal bone mineral density at the lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), is preserved. This finding is in contrast to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) results of abnormal trabecular microstructure and epidemiological evidence for increased overall fracture risk in PHPT. Because DXA does not directly measure trabecular bone and HRpQCT is not widely available, we used trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel gray-level textural analysis applied to spine DXA images, to estimate indirectly trabecular microarchitecture. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess TBS from spine DXA images in relation to HRpQCT indices and bone stiffness in radius and tibia in PHPT. Design and Setting: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a referral center. Patients: Participants were 22 postmenopausal women with PHPT. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measured were areal bone mineral density by DXA, TBS indices derived from DXA images, HRpQCT standard measures, and bone stiffness assessed by finite element analysis at distal radius and tibia. Results: TBS in PHPT was low at 1.24, representing abnormal trabecular microstructure (normal ≥1.35). TBS was correlated with whole bone stiffness and all HRpQCT indices, except for trabecular thickness and trabecular stiffness at the radius. At the tibia, correlations were observed between TBS and volumetric densities, cortical thickness, trabecular bone volume, and whole bone stiffness. TBS correlated with all indices of trabecular microarchitecture, except trabecular thickness, after adjustment for body weight. Conclusion: TBS, a measurement technology readily available by DXA, shows promise in the clinical assessment of trabecular microstructure in PHPT. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.

Gifre L.,Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit | Vidal J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Carrasco J.L.,University of Barcelona | Muxi A.,Hospital Clinic of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2016

Summary: Osteoporosis is a frequent complication related to spinal cord injury (SCI), and data on osteoporosis treatment after SCI is scarce. Treatment with denosumab increases lumbar and femoral BMD and decreases bone turnover markers in individuals with recent SCI. This drug may be a promising therapeutic option in SCI-related osteoporosis. Introduction: Osteoporosis development is a frequent complication related to SCI, especially at the sublesional level. Nevertheless, data on osteoporosis treatment after SCI is scarce, particularly short term after injury, when the highest bone loss is produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of denosumab in the treatment of SCI-related osteoporosis. Methods: Fourteen individuals aged 39 ± 15 years with osteoporosis secondary to recent SCI (mean injury duration 15 ± 4 months) were treated with denosumab for 12 months. Bone turnover markers (BTMs) (PINP, bone ALP, sCTx), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) were assessed at baseline and at 12 months. All participants received calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Results: At 12 months, SCI denosumab-treated participants showed a significant increase in BMD at TH (+2.4 ± 3.6 %, p = 0.042), FN (+3 ± 3.6 %, p = 0.006), and LS (+7.8 ± 3.7 %, p < 0.001) compared to baseline values. Denosumab treatment was associated with significant decreases in BTMs (bone ALP −42 %, p < 0.001; PINP −58 %, p < 0.001, sCTx −57 %, p = 0.002) at 12 months. BMD evolution was not related to BTM changes or 25OHD serum levels. No skeletal fractures or serious adverse events were observed during follow-up. Conclusions: Treatment with denosumab increases lumbar and femoral BMD and decreases bone turnover markers in individuals with recent SCI. This drug may be a promising therapeutic option in SCI-related osteoporosis. © 2015, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

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