Bengtsson L.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute |
Andrae U.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute |
Aspelien T.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute |
Batrak Y.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute |
And 19 more authors.
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2017
The aim of this article is to describe the reference configuration of the convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) model HARMONIE-AROME, which is used for operational short-range weather forecasts in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Sweden. It is developed, maintained, and validated as part of the shared ALADIN-HIRLAM system by a collaboration of 26 countries in Europe and northern Africa on short-range mesoscale NWP. HARMONIE-AROME is based on the model AROME developed within the ALADIN consortium. Along with the joint modeling framework, AROME was implemented and utilized in both northern and southern European conditions by the above listed countries, and this activity has led to extensive updates to the model's physical parameterizations. In this paper the authors present the differences in model dynamics and physical parameterizations compared with AROME, as well as important configuration choices of the reference, such as lateral boundary conditions, model levels, horizontal resolution, model time step, as well as topography, physiography, and aerosol databases used. Separate documentation will be provided for the atmospheric and surface data-assimilation algorithms and observation types used, as well as a separate description of the ensemble prediction system based on HARMONIE-AROME, which is called HarmonEPS. © 2017 American Meteorological Society.
Sterl A.,Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute |
Bintanja R.,Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute |
Brodeau L.,University of Stockholm |
Gleeson E.,Met Eireann |
And 6 more authors.
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2012
EC-Earth is a newly developed global climate system model. Its core components are the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) as the atmosphere component and the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) developed by Institute Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) as the ocean component. Both components are used with a horizontal resolution of roughly one degree. In this paper we describe the performance of NEMO in the coupled system by comparing model output with ocean observations. We concentrate on the surface ocean and mass transports. It appears that in general the model has a cold and fresh bias, but a much too warm Southern Ocean. While sea ice concentration and extent have realistic values, the ice tends to be too thick along the Siberian coast. Transports through important straits have realistic values, but generally are at the lower end of the range of observational estimates. Exceptions are very narrow straits (Gibraltar, Bering) which are too wide due to the limited resolution. Consequently the modelled transports through them are too high. The strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is also at the lower end of observational estimates. The interannual variability of key variables and correlations between them are realistic in size and pattern. This is especially true for the variability of surface temperature in the tropical Pacific (El Niño). Overall the ocean component of EC-Earth performs well and helps making EC-Earth a reliable climate model. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Semmler T.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research |
McGrath R.,Met Eireann |
Wang S.,Met Eireann |
Wang S.,Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2012
The atmospheric general circulation model EC-EARTH-IFS has been applied to investigate the influence of both a reduced and a removed Arctic sea ice cover on the Arctic energy budget and on the climate of the Northern mid-latitudes. Three 40-year simulations driven by original and modified ERA-40 sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations have been performed at T255L62 resolution, corresponding to 79 km horizontal resolution. Simulated changes between sensitivity and reference experiments are most pronounced over the Arctic itself where the reduced or removed sea ice leads to strongly increased upward heat and longwave radiation fluxes and precipitation in winter. In summer, the most pronounced change is the stronger absorption of shortwave radiation which is enhanced by optically thinner clouds. Averaged over the year and over the area north of 70° N, the negative energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere decreases by about 10 W/m2 in both sensitivity experiments. The energy transport across 70° N is reduced. Changes are not restricted to the Arctic. Less extreme cold events and less precipitation are simulated in sub-Arctic and Northern mid-latitude regions in winter. © 2012 The Author(s).
Schmith T.,Danish Meteorological Institute |
Yang S.,Danish Meteorological Institute |
Gleeson E.,Met Eireann |
Semmler T.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Journal of Climate | Year: 2014
The surface of the world's oceans has been warming since the beginning of industrialization. In addition to this, multidecadal sea surface temperature (SST) variations of internal origin exist. Evidence suggests that the North Atlantic Ocean exhibits the strongest multidecadal SST variations and that these variations are connected to the overturning circulation. This work investigates the extent to which these internal multidecadal variations have contributed to enhancing or diminishing the trend induced by the external radiative forcing, globally and in the North Atlantic. A model study is carried out wherein the analyses of a long control simulation with constant radiative forcing at preindustrial level and of an ensemble of simulations with historical forcing from 1850 until 2005 are combined. First, it is noted that global SST trends calculated from the different historical simulations are similar, while there is a large disagreement between the North Atlantic SST trends. Then the control simulation is analyzed, where a relationship between SST anomalies and anomalies in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) for multidecadal and longer time scales is identified. This relationship enables the extraction of the AMOC-related SST variability from each individual member of the ensemble of historical simulations and then the calculation of the SST trends with the AMOC-related variability excluded. For the global SST trends this causes only a little difference while SST trends with AMOC-related variability excluded for the North Atlantic show closer agreement than with the AMOC-related variability included. From this it is concluded that AMOC variability has contributed significantly to North Atlantic SST trends since the mid nineteenth century. © 2014 American Meteorological Society.
Hanafin J.A.,University College Dublin |
Hanafin J.A.,National University of Ireland |
Mcgrath R.,Met Eireann |
Semmler T.,Met Eireann |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2011
Indices have been used as indicators of synoptic-scale flow strength, shear vorticity, flow direction and static stability over Ireland and Britain. Changes in large-scale dynamic flow and static stability over the European region are expected because of shifting climate patterns, and investigation of how these indices change in future runs of global climate models allows us to estimate how this will affect storm frequency and intensity in the region. Analysis of frequency distributions shows an increase in westerly flows and decreases in most other flow directions, indicating an increase in rainfall for the region. The flow strength on days with strong winds increases in the future runs, as does the number of gale days. The future runs show not only an overall increase in atmospheric stability but also significantly larger areas with stronger instability during periods of extreme instability. © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.
O'Sullivan J.,University College Dublin |
Sweeney C.,University College Dublin |
Nolan P.,ICHEC Inc |
Gleeson E.,Met. Eireann
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015
There is a paucity of dynamically downscaled climate model output at a high resolution over Ireland, of temperature projections for the mid-21st century. This study aims to address this shortcoming. A preliminary investigation of global climate model (GCM) data and high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) data shows that the latter exhibits greater variability over Ireland by reducing the dominance of the surrounding seas on the climate signal. This motivates the subsequent dynamical downscaling and analysis of the temperature output from three high-resolution (4-7 km grid size) RCMs over Ireland. The three RCMs, driven by four GCMs from CMIP3 and CMIP5, were run under different Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) future scenarios. Projections of mean and extreme temperature changes are considered for the mid-century (2041-2060) and assessed relative to the control period of 1981-2000. Analysis of the RCM data shows that annual mean temperatures are projected to rise between 0.4 and 1.8 °C above control levels by mid-century. On a seasonal basis, results differ by forcing scenario. Future summers have the largest projected warming under RCP 8.5, where the greatest warming is seen in the southeast of Ireland. The remaining two high emission scenarios (SRESs A1B and A2) project future winters to have the greatest warming, with almost uniform increases of 1.5-2 °C across the island. Changes in the bidecadal 5th and 95th percentile values of daily minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively, are also analysed. The greatest change in daily minimum temperature is projected for future winters (indicating fewer cold nights and frost days), a pattern that is consistent across all scenarios/forcings. An investigation into the distribution of temperature under RCP 8.5 shows a strong summer increase compounded by increased variability, and a winter increase compounded by an increase in skewness. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society.
Nolan P.,University College Dublin |
Lynch P.,University College Dublin |
McGrath R.,Met Eireann |
Semmler T.,Met Eireann |
Wang S.,Met Eireann
Wind Energy | Year: 2012
We consider the impact of climate change on the wind energy resource of Ireland using an ensemble of Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations. The RCM dynamically downscales the coarse information provided by the Global Climate Models (GCMs) and provides high resolution information, on a subdomain covering Ireland. The RCM used in this work is the Rossby Center's RCM (RCA3). The RCA3 model is evaluated by performing simulations of the past Irish climate, driven by European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-40 data, and by comparing the output to observations. Results confirm that the output of the RCA3 model exhibits reasonable and realistic features as documented in the historical wind data record. For the investigation of the influence of the future climate under different climate scenarios, the Max Plank Institute's GCM, European Center Hamburg Model, is used to drive the RCA3 model. Simulations are run for a control period 1961-2000 and future period 2021-2060. The future climate was simulated using the four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios A1B, A2, B1 and B2. The results for the downscaled simulations show a substantial overall increase in the energy content of the wind for the future winter months and a decrease during the summer months. The projected changes for summer and winter were found to be statistically significant over most of Ireland. However, the projected changes should be viewed with caution since the climate change signal is of similar magnitude to the variability of the evaluation and control simulations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Noone S.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth |
Murphy C.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth |
Coll J.,National University of Ireland, Maynooth |
Matthews T.,Liverpool John Moores University |
And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2016
Long-term precipitation series are critical for understanding emerging changes to the hydrological cycle. To this end we construct a homogenized Island of Ireland Precipitation (IIP) network comprising 25 stations and a composite series covering the period 1850–2010, providing the second-longest regional precipitation archive in the British-Irish Isles. We expand the existing catalogue of long-term precipitation records for the island by recovering archived data for an additional eight stations. Following bridging and updating of stations HOMogenisation softwarE in R (HOMER) homogenization software is used to detect breaks using pairwise and joint detection. A total of 25 breakpoints are detected across 14 stations, and the majority (20) are corroborated by metadata. Assessment of variability and change in homogenized and extended precipitation records reveal positive (winter) and negative (summer) trends. Trends in records covering the typical period of digitization (1941 onwards) are not always representative of longer records. Furthermore, trends in post-homogenization series change magnitude and even direction at some stations. While cautionary flags are raised for some series, confidence in the derived network is high given attention paid to metadata, coherence of behaviour across the network and consistency of findings with other long-term climatic series such as England and Wales precipitation. As far as we are aware, this work represents the first application of HOMER to a long-term precipitation network and bodes well for use in other regions. It is expected that the homogenized IIP network will find wider utility in benchmarking and supporting climate services across the Island of Ireland, a sentinel location in the North Atlantic. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society
O'Dowd C.,National University of Ireland |
Ceburnis D.,National University of Ireland |
Vaishya A.,National University of Ireland |
Jennings S.G.,National University of Ireland |
Moran E.,Met Eireann
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013
Clean-air policies in developing countries have resulted in reduced levels of anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution. Reductions in aerosol pollution is thought to result in a reduction in haze and cloud layers, leading to an increase in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface, and ultimately, an increase in surface temperatures. There have been many studies illustrating coherent relationships between surface solar radiation and temperature however, a direct link between aerosol emissions, concentrations, and surface radiation has not been demonstrated to date. Here, we illustrate a coherence between the trends of reducing anthropogenic aerosol emissions and concentrations, at the interface between the North-East Atlantic and western-Europe, leading to a staggering increase in surface solar radiation of the order of ∼20% over the last decade. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Tripathi O.P.,National University of Ireland |
Jennings S.G.,National University of Ireland |
O'Dowd C.D.,National University of Ireland |
Coleman L.,National University of Ireland |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2010
Data from various stations having different measurement record periods between 1988 and 2007 are analyzed to investigate the surface ozone concentration, long-term trends, and seasonal changes in and around Ireland. Time series statistical analysis is performed on the monthly mean data using seasonal and trend decomposition procedures and the Box-Jenkins approach (autoregressive integrated moving average). In general, ozone concentrations in the Irish region are found to have a negative trend at all sites except at the coastal sites of Mace Head and Valentia. Data from the most polluted Dublin city site have shown a very strong negative trend of -0.33 ppb/yr with a 95% confidence limit of 0.17 ppb/yr (i.e., -0.33 ± 0.17) for the period 2002-2007, and for the site near the city of Cork, the trend is found to be -0.20 ± 0.11 ppb/yr over the same period. The negative trend for other sites is more pronounced when the data span is considered from around the year 2000 to 2007. Rural sites of Wexford and Monaghan have also shown a very strong negative trend of -0.99 ±0.13 and -0.58 ± 0.12, respectively, for the period 2000-2007. Mace Head, a site that is representative of ozone changes in the air advected from the Atlantic to Europe in the marine planetary boundary layer, has shown a positive trend of about +0.16 ± 0.04 ppb per annum over the entire period 1988-2007, but this positive trend has reduced during recent years (e.g., in the period 2001-2007). Cluster analysis for back trajectories are performed for the stations having a long record of data, Mace Head and Lough Navar. For Mace Head, the northern and western clean air sectors have shown a similar positive trend (+0.17 ± 0.02 ppb/yr for the northern sector and +0.18 ± 0.02 ppb/yr for the western sector) for the whole period, but partial analysis for the clean western sector at Mace Head shows different trends during different time periods with a decrease in the positive trend since 1988 indicating a deceleration in the ozone trend for Atlantic air masses entering Europe. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.