State College, PA, United States
State College, PA, United States

Messiah College is a private Christian college of the liberal arts and applied arts and science located in Grantham, in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, near the capital city of Harrisburg. Messiah's mission is to "educate men and women toward maturity of intellect, character, and Christian faith in preparation for lives of service, leadership, and reconciliation in church and society." Wikipedia.


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Bakunov M.I.,RAS Institute of Applied Physics | Maslov A.V.,Tucson | Novokovskaya A.L.,Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University | Kryemadhi A.,Messiah College
Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2010

We revisit the radar echo technique as an approach to detect ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). The UHECR extensive air showers generate disk-like ionization fronts propagating with a relativistic velocity and creating fast decaying plasma. We study the reflection of a radio wave, such as the one from a radar transmitter or commercial radio and TV station, from the relativistic ionization front. The reflected wave will be frequency upshifted due to the relativistic Doppler effect and propagate almost normally to the front due to relativistic aberration. The amplitude of the reflected wave depends strongly on the front velocity and parameters (density, collision frequency) of the plasma behind the front. We develop a theory that allows one to find the reflected wave. Using this theory and typical parameters of extensive air showers, we discuss the feasibility of UHECR detection. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Reeve A.M.,Messiah College
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2015

A simple, two-step synthesis of 9-phenylxanthene-1,8-dione from dimedone and benzaldehyde was developed for second-semester undergraduate organic chemistry. Both reactions afford crystalline solids in excellent yield by simply precipitating the product from solution. Reaction times are very short, and no specialized equipment, reagents, or purification techniques are needed. Multiple spectroscopic methods (IR and 1H, 13C, and DEPT NMR) are employed to solve the structures of the intermediate and final product, which are unknown to students. The products are not ones students would initially predict, but rather are derived from careful analysis of the spectroscopic data in conjunction with logical mechanistic steps. 1H NMR peaks are well resolved, even at low field. Students have responded favorably over the five years this experiment has been used as a culminating experience in organic chemistry lab. © 2014 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.


Homan K.J.,Grove City College | Lemmon V.A.,Messiah College
Mental Health, Religion and Culture | Year: 2016

Social comparison has been shown to contribute to the negative attitudes that most Western women have towards their bodies. However, minimal research has addressed the relationship between social comparison and body appreciation, which entails holding favourable opinions towards the body, accepting the body along with its deviations from societal beauty ideals, respecting the body by engaging in healthy behaviours, and protecting the body by rejecting unrealistic media appearance ideals. This study tested whether feeling loved and accepted by God would weaken the inverse relationship between social comparison and body appreciation among a sample of 186 female undergraduates. Results showed that frequent body-related comparisons were related to lower body appreciation, but this relationship was conditional upon the quality of women's perceived relationship with God. Results suggest that future research should explore interventions designed to create improved secure attachment relationships between clients and God. © 2016, © [2015], 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Szczytkowski-Thomson J.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Szczytkowski-Thomson J.L.,Messiah College | Lebonville C.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Lysle D.T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2013

The current study investigates the pharmacotherapeutic use of morphine as a preventative treatment for stress-enhanced fear learning, an animal model that closely mimics symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a chronic and debilitating anxiety disorder characterized by exaggerated fear and/or anxiety that may develop as a result of exposure to a traumatic event. In this model, rats are exposed to a severe stressor (15 foot shocks) in one environment (Context A) and then subsequently exposed to a milder form of the same stressor (single foot shock) in a different environment (Context B). Animals that did not receive prior shock treatment exhibit fear responsiveness to Context B in line with the severity of the single shock given in this context. Animals that had received prior shock treatment in Context A exhibit an exaggerated learned fear response to Context B. Furthermore, animals receiving a single dose of morphine immediately following the severe stressor in Context A continue to show an enhanced fear response in Context B. However, animals receiving repeated morphine administration (three injections) after exposure to the severe stressor in Context A or a single dose of morphine at 48 h after the severe stressor no longer exhibit an enhancement in fear learning to Context B. These results are consistent with clinical studies suggesting that morphine treatment following a severe stressor may be useful in preventing or reducing the severity of PTSD in at-risk populations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Underwood H.R.,Messiah College
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Meeting the needs of service learning project clients often requires more extensive treatment than a student team can provide in a single academic year. We find that a multi-year undergraduate engineering project curriculum improves on the traditional senior capstone course by extending the time period over which such credited treatment occurs, while offering additional benefits. Among the added benefits is increased project continuity, as senior students pass on knowledge, expertise and progress to junior students, sustaining project work in service of the client over multiple academic cycles. While clients and faculty enjoy project continuity and longevity, the multi-year project plan benefits students by increased opportunities for management and leadership, making the educational experience a more complete and realistic one. Coyle, et al. has presented the EPICS model for a multi-year engineering project program with multidisciplinary and service-oriented emphases, as implemented at a large university.1 We have implemented a similar multi-year plan known as the Integrated Projects Curriculum (IPC), that functions effectively for our smaller engineering program at Messiah College. Evaluating multi-year project work in various phases of development entails unique challenges as compared to the traditional capstone approach, but using a portfolio to assess the ongoing project work serves as a practical and effective tool, with sufficient flexibility. The portfolio for engineering assessment has been described by Williams.2 In recent years, a number of authors have identified various uses3 of the portfolio for the purposes of engineering education; this paper focuses on our experience of portfolio use for multi-year projects, in a progressive development lasting over several semesters, toward completion in a student's senior year. The reflective component of the portfolio shows how well students have integrated liberal arts disciplines in their personal formation as an engineer, especially where addressing professional skills such as teamwork, communication, ethical judgment, and identifying societal context. Well-defined portfolio-documented aspects of project work also provide evidence suitable for educational assessment. The set of portfolio requirements presented here, which overall serves as a grand rubric in itself, facilitates individual student grading on diverse project applications over several semesters. A more specific rubric developed for each portfolio category addresses one aspect of the project work, and details expectations made as uniform as possible over the range of applications. The same portfolio material and rubrics serve as a measure for correlated items of the ABET assessment plan. This paper provides examples of multi-year multidisciplinary service learning projects at our institution, and describes the portfolio approach as it has been developed for the purposes of these multi-year projects, including sample rubrics. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2013.


Miller D.K.,Messiah College | Kieffer H.S.,Messiah College | Kemp H.E.,Messiah College | Torres S.E.,Messiah College
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of soccer-related fitness parameters on elite National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III male soccer players during the off-season. Sixteen underclassmen from a recent NCAA Division III national championship soccer team completed a series of tests across 3 separate occasions over a 15-day period, with adequate recovery time between sessions to eliminate any carryover effect. Physiological parameters measured included aerobic endurance, anaerobic power and capacity, jumping power, agility, hamstring flexibility, and body composition. Descriptive statistics such as the mean (±SD) and range were calculated for each test. Twotailed Pearson correlations were run to determine significant relationships that existed between variables. Test results were T-Tests (9.9 ± 0.4), Active Knee Extension degrees (-34.2 ± 11.9 right, -34.0 ± 13.9 left), vertical jump (61.8 ± 7.2 cm), percent fat (5.6 ± 1.6), Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) laps (113.2 ± 12.3), estimated -V O2max (53.6 ± 2.9 ml·kg -1·min-1), Wingate peak (802.7 ± 155.6 W), Wingate peak (10.9 ± 1.2 W·kg-1), Wingate mean (651.2 ± 101.6 W), Wingate mean (8.9 ± 0.6 W·kg-1), and Wingate fatigue rate (35.9 ± 8.4%). Strong correlations existed between PACER laps and percent fat, between peakW and peakW·kg-1, and between peakWand fatigue rate. These results suggest that elite Division III soccer players maintain relatively high fitness levels during the off-season. Additionally, they provide coaches with preliminary norms that can be used to determine off-season training expectations and adjust programs accordingly for their athletes. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Underwood H.R.,Messiah College
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

In recent years, many students in majors other than engineering or science have been expected to take a Science, Technology and Society (STS) course, or the equivalent, to satisfy a component of their general education requirement. Ideally, the STS requirement helps students learn how culture interacts with science and technology, through influences in both directions. In the process, non-major students can also gain appreciation for essential concepts, controversies and current areas of exploration, while developing increased technological literacy for critiquing scientific or technological claims in presentations of various forms. Teaching an STS course, however, requires a very different pedagogical approach than a faculty member may use for a traditional engineering course. Rather than an emphasis on rigorous quantitative problem solving or project planning, non-major students benefit much more from an approach that provides sufficient historical context and biographical details of explorers and their contributions. The instructor should effectively guide discussions on key questions related to selected readings or video presentations, utilize classroom demonstrations to illustrate key concepts, and assign certain mini experiments or projects that help students get a handson feel for how things work. Evaluation techniques should fit the course audience. While matching and multiple choice test questions can assess students learning at the lower levels of the New Bloom's Taxonomy related to remembering names, contributions and terminology or understanding concepts correctly, assigning one or more thesis driven papers can serve to assess students' progress in the upper levels of thinking from analyzing and applying to evaluating and creating. This paper illustrates choices made by the author in teaching a non-majors course involving electrical science and technology at Messiah College over the past several years, including samples of assessments measuring student outcomes with the above techniques. The author recommends teaching such an interdisciplinary course for non-majors not only for the pleasure of the experience, but also for the benefits of expanded scholarship that result, both for the students and the faculty member, in the form of newly established interdisciplinary connections. Such connections include understanding diverse viewpoints on technology, recognizing how one fits in the process of developing and guiding technology for society as a whole, and bringing the broader background of biographical and historical precedent into the classroom of the standard engineering curriculum. The paper concludes with some suggestions for future work. © 2012 American Society for Engineering Education.


Patscheider J.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Patscheider J.,Urbana University | Hellgren N.,Urbana University | Hellgren N.,Messiah College | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Nanostructured materials such as nanocomposites and nanolaminates-subjects of intense interest in modern materials research-are defined by internal interfaces, the nature of which is generally unknown. Nevertheless, the interfaces often determine the bulk properties. An example of this is superhard nanocomposites with hardness approaching that of diamond. TiN/Si 3N4 nanocomposites (TiN nanocrystals encapsulated in a fully percolated SiNx tissue phase) and nanolaminates, in particular, have attracted much attention as model systems for the synthesis of such superhard materials. Here, we use in situ angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure of Si3N 4/TiN(001), Si/TiN(001), and Ti/TiN(001) bilayer interfaces, in which 4-ML-thick overlayers are grown in an ultrahigh vacuum system by reactive magnetron sputter deposition onto epitaxial TiN layers on MgO(001). The thickness of the Si3N4, Si, and Ti overlayers is chosen to be thin enough to insure sufficient electron transparency to probe the interfaces, while being close to values reported in typical nanocomposites and nanolaminates. The results show that these overlayer/TiN(001) interfaces have distinctly different bonding characteristics. Si3N4 exhibits interface polarization through the formation of an interlayer, in which the N concentration is enhanced at higher substrate bias values during Si 3N4 deposition. The increased number of Ti-N bonds at the interface, together with the resulting polarization, strengthens interfacial bonding. In contrast, overlayers of Si and, even more so, metallic Ti weaken the interface by minimizing the valence band energy difference between the two phases. A model is proposed that provides a semiquantitative explanation of the interfacial bond strength in nitrogen-saturated and nitrogen-deficient Ti-Si-N nanocomposites. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Braught G.,Dickinson College | Wahls T.,Dickinson College | Eby L.M.,Messiah College
ACM Transactions on Computing Education | Year: 2011

Previous studies indicate that the use of pair programming has beneficial effects on student learning. In this article, we present a controlled study that directly measured students' acquisition of individual programming skills using laboratory practica (in which students programmed individually under exam conditions). Additionally, we analyzed other measures of student performance, attitudes, and retention. Our results provide direct evidence that pair programming improves the individual programming skills of lower SAT students, and that students who pair program are more confident in their work and are more likely to successfully complete the course. Results from the four other major studies of the effects of pair programming are reviewed and compared with those presented here in order to draw broader conclusions. © 2011 ACM.


Underwood H.R.,Messiah College
ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016

Orienting projects toward social services introduces and motivates students to real-world problem solving in an engineering curriculum. While service learning has gained traction in recent years, only a few papers in the literature have addressed the development of assistive technologies as a focus for engineering project applications. Over the past eight years, the Collaboratory for Strategic Partnerships and Applied Research at Messiah College has fostered several interdisciplinary undergraduate student and faculty projects, such as the assistive communication technology Wireless-Enabled Remote Co-presence (WERCware) described here. WERCware is designed for those who depend on job-or life-coaching, to ameliorate cognitive and behavioral challenges that affect performance at home or in the workplace. It facilitates remote communication between coach and consumer, for training and/or other support as needed, to increase independence of the consumer. WERCware development, as a collaborative effort between Messiah College and a small company, has gone through several fits and starts including sporadic seed grant funding, angel investor interest, multiple field trials, consultant contributions, and attempted commercialization. These phases have exposed students to technical challenges of electrical and computer engineering outside the formal classroom, but also have required an interdisciplinary mindset to understand the social need and recognize realistic hurdles inherent to getting a product from development to market. Previous papers have addressed the competitive student team member selection process and assessment of the credit-bearing project work in our engineering project curriculum at Messiah College. This paper focuses on WERCware as an extended duration example of multidisciplinary undergraduate project work, highlighting lessons learned by both students and faculty from the experience. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2016.

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