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Ponnāni, India

Jayakrishnan K.,MES College Ponnani | Joseph A.,University of Calicut | Mathew K.P.,Thomas College | Siji T.B.,Thomas College | And 4 more authors.
Optical Materials | Year: 2016

The third order nonlinear optical features of certain novel thiocoumarin derivatives have been studied. Single beam Z-scan study on these compounds reveals that the compounds exhibit self defocusing effect upon irradiation with 532 nm, 7 ns pulses of Nd:YAG laser. Nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and second-order molecular hyperpolarizability values were estimated. The optical power limiting properties of the compounds are found to be attributable to both two-photon and excited state absorption. Some of the samples show nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) as high as 24.5 cm/GW. UV-Visible and photoluminescence outputs of these compounds reveal remarkable absorptive and emissive properties. This article also reports extraordinary growth of third order optical nonlinearity in pure coumarin upon certain donor substitutions in lieu of hydrogen. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) signals of the compounds were analyzed to verify the Z-scan results. Electrostatic Surface Potential (ESP) mapping and structure optimization techniques have been employed to interpret the structure-property relationship of each molecule. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jayakrishnan K.,MES College Ponnani | Siji Narendran N.K.,National Institute of Technology Calicut | Sreejith P.,University of Calicut | Joseph A.,University of Calicut | And 2 more authors.
Optical Materials | Year: 2015

The preparation and NLO characterization of photosensitive polyesters containing azoaromatic residues in the molecular backbone, functionalized with orthohydroxy chromophores is presented. Samples were studied for its UV-vis absorption, FT-IR and intensity dependent nonlinear absorption properties. Nonlinear characterization was carried out with z-scan using frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The closed aperture z-scan spectra reveal the self defocusing effects of the samples with negative nonlinearity coefficient (n2) showing values as high as -1.28 × 10-10 (esu) for certain samples and the corresponding third order susceptibility coefficient of the order of 29.9 × 10-12 (esu). Degenerate four wave mixing technique was employed to substantiate the findings. The numerical fits show that the molecules exhibit reverse saturable absorption. A study of beam fluence dependence of nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) has been presented. All phenomena indicate that molecules are reverse saturable absorbers whose optical limiting property gets enhanced with increasing conjugation length. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jayakrishnan K.,MES College Ponnani | Joseph A.,University of Calicut | Bhattathiripad J.,University of Calicut | Ramesan M.T.,University of Calicut | And 2 more authors.
Optical Materials | Year: 2016

We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Santhosh V.,MES College Ponnani | Padmalal D.,Center for Earth Science Studies | Baijulal B.,Center for Earth Science Studies | Maya K.,Center for Earth Science Studies
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

The increasing demand for building materials has led to indiscriminate exploitation of clay-rich topsoil from wetlands including the paddy lands of Central Kerala in the southwestern coast of India. The problem is critical in areas adjoining the major developmental centers having low per capita land and natural resource availability. Loss of fertile topsoil, shrinkage of agricultural lands and consequent food security issues, erosion of naturally evolved nutrients, lowering of water table in wells adjacent to the mining sites, etc., are some of the major environmental issues arising from indiscriminate brick and tile clay mining. Although, brick and tile clay mining brings short-term economic benefits and employment opportunities to a section of people, the process in the long run creates severe damages to the environmental settings of the area. The present paper deals with a few aspects of brick and tile clay mining in the paddy lands of Central Kerala, especially around Kochi City, a fast developing urban-cum-industrial center in South India, which demands large quantities of building materials including bricks and tiles for construction of infrastructural facilities. It is estimated that 729,695 tons/year (ty-1) of brick and tile clays are extracted from the coastal lowlands of Central Kerala, spreading to the Chalakudy (135,975 ty-1), Periyar (483,820 ty-1) and Muvattupuzha (109,900 ty-1) river basins. The N, P and K loss through extraction of brick and tile clays amounts to 210 ty-1, 96 ty-1 and 9,352 ty-1, respectively. As nutrient loss is an irreversible process in human time scale, its implications on agricultural productivity is a matter of serious concern. The study warrants the need for a comprehensive policy with an aim to regulate the mining activities on an environment- friendly basis in the densely populated coasts of the world, in general, and the study area in particular. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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