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Romig T.,University of Hohenheim | Omer R.A.,University of Leipzig | Zeyhle E.,African Medical and Research Foundation | Huttner M.,University of Hohenheim | And 10 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2011

Cystic echinococcosis occurs in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa, but the frequency of this zoonosis differs considerably among and within countries. Especially human cases seem to be focally distributed. A number of environmental and behavioural factors partially explain this pattern, i.e. density of livestock, presence of dogs, uncontrolled slaughter, and hygiene. In addition, the various taxa of Echinococcus spp. are known to differ considerably in infectivity to different host species including humans. Genetic characterizations of isolates, which are necessary to evaluate the impact of this factor - so far done in only a few countries - indicate that the diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Sub-Saharan Africa is greater than on any other continent. The very incomplete data which are available show that sympatrical taxa may infect different hosts, others may be geographically restricted, some life cycles involve livestock, others wild animals. Possible implications of this complexity for public health, livestock economy and conservation are briefly discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


M'Thiruaine C.M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | M'Thiruaine C.M.,Meru University of Science and Technology | Friedrich H.B.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Nyawade E.A.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Omondi B.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

The new 2,4,6-trimethylaniline complexes [Cp∗Fe(CO)2(NH2C6H2(CH3)3)]+ (3) and [CpFe(CO)2(NH2C6H2(CH3)3)]+ (4) (Cp∗ = η5-C5(CH3)5; Cp = η5-C5H5) have been synthesized and isolated in high yields as tetrafluoroborate salts. They have been fully characterized by NMR, IR, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray crystallography. For comparison purpose, the molecular structure of [CpFe(CO)2(NH2CH2C6H4OCH3)]+ (5) has been determined and discussed in relation to those of 3 and 4. Compounds 3 and 5 crystallize in monoclinic P21/c space group, while 4 crystallizes in triclinic P1¯ space group. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited considerable thermal stabilities at temperatures as high as 170 °C, which is close to their melting points. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Lee T.P.,Sunway University | Muketha G.M.,Meru University of Science and Technology | Xin G.Y.,UCSI University
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2014

Statistics from Immigration Department of Malaysia has shown that the foreign workers have increased tremendously over the past 4 years. Different nationalities of foreign maids usually speak in their own mother languages from their home countries. A certain level of communication barrier between the Malaysia's employers and the foreign workers were identified in the previous study. The misunderstanding of tasks requested to their domestic maid had led to the communication barrier. The study confirmed positively that this communication barrier has occurred between the employer and the maid. In this paper, the Mobile-Assisted Instructional for Domestic Maid (MAID-M) is proposed and presented both conceptually and physically. Feedbacks of the proposed application is collected and tested. © 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved. Source


Muiruri S.,Vector Borne Diseases Control Unit | Kabiru E.W.,Kenyatta University | Muchiri E.M.,Vector Borne Diseases Control Unit | Hussein H.,Office of Direct. of Health | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2015

Few studies have focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) transmission in less arid, transitional landscapes surrounding known high-risk regions. The objective of this study was to identify evidence of RVFV exposure in Bodhei Village in a forested area at the edge of the RVFV-epidemicGarissa region. In a household cluster-based survey conducted between epidemics in early 2006, 211 participants were enrolled. Overall seroprevalence for anti-RVFV was high (18%) and comparable with rates in the more arid, dense brush regions farther north. Seroprevalence of adults was 28%, whereas that of children was significantly lower (3%; P < 0.001); the youngest positive child was age 3 years. Males were more likely to be seropositive than females (25% versus 11%; P < 0.01), and animal husbandry activities (birthing, sheltering, and butchering) were strongly associated with seropositivity. The results confirm that significant RVFV transmission occurs outside of recognized high-risk areas and independent of known epidemic periods. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source


Wassermann M.,University of Hohenheim | Woldeyes D.,Arba Minch University | Woldeyes D.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Gerbi B.M.,Turmi Health Center | And 7 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2016

Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade. © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Source

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