Meru University of Science and Technology
Meru, Kenya
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Solomon N.,Windward Islands | Solomon N.,St. George's University | Kachani M.,Western University of Health Sciences | Zeyhle E.,Meru University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2017

The World Health Organization (WHO) treatment protocols for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are based on the standardized ultrasound (US) classification. This study examined whether the classification reflected the natural history of CE in untreated and albendazole-treated patients. Data were collected during mass US screenings in CE endemic regions among transhumant populations, the Turkana and Berber peoples of Kenya and Morocco. Cysts were classified using the WHO classification. Patient records occurring prior to treatment, and after albendazole administration, were selected. 852 paired before/after observations of 360 cysts from 257 patients were analyzed. A McNemar-Bowker χ2 test for symmetry was significant (p < 0.0001). 744 observations (87.3%) maintained the same class, and 101 (11.9%) progressed, consistent with the classification. Regression to CE3B occurred in seven of 116 CE4 cyst observations (6.0%). A McNemar-Bowker χ2 test of 1414 paired before/after observations of 288 cysts from 157 albendazole-treated patients was significant (p < 0.0001). 1236 observations (87.4%) maintained the same class, and 149 (10.5%) progressed, consistent with the classification. Regression to CE3B occurred in 29 of 206 CE4 observations (14.1%). Significant asymmetry confirms the WHO classification's applicability to the natural history of CE and albendazole-induced changes. Regressions may reflect the stability of CE3B cysts. © 2017

Mwendwa F.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Mbae C.K.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Kinyua J.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Mulinge E.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2017

Background: Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent for amoebiasis is a considerable burden to population in the developing countries where it accounts for over 50 million infections. The tools for detection of amoebiasis are inadequate and diagnosis relies on microscopy which means a significant percent of cases remain undiagnosed. Moreover, tests formats that can be rapidly applied in rural endemic areas are not available. Methods: In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal test (LAMP) based on 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was designed with extra reaction accelerating primers (stem primers) and compared with the published LAMP and PCR tests in detection of E. histolytica DNA in clinical samples. Results: The stem LAMP test indicated shorter time to results by an average 11 min and analytical sensitivity of 10−7 (~30 pg/ml) compared to the standard LAMP and PCR which showed sensitivities levels of 10−5 (~3 ng/ml) and 10−4 (~30 ng/ml) respectively using tenfold serial dilution of DNA. In the analysis of clinical specimens positive for Entamoeba spp. trophozoites and cysts using microscopy, the stem LAMP test detected E. histolytica DNA in 36/126, standard LAMP test 20/126 and PCR 17/126 cases respectively. There was 100% agreement in detection of the stem LAMP test product using fluorescence of SYTO-9 dye in real time machine, through addition of 1/10 dilution of SYBR® Green I and electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Conclusion: The stem LAMP test developed in this study indicates potential towards detection of E. histolytica. © 2017 The Author(s).

PubMed | SAS Institute, University of Hohenheim, University of Zürich, University of Saskatchewan and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Advances in parasitology | Year: 2017

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are severe helminthic zoonoses. Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere where it is typically maintained in a wild animal cycle including canids as definitive hosts and rodents as intermediate hosts. The species Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus intermedius are the causative agents of CE with a worldwide distribution and a highly variable human disease burden in the different endemic areasdepending upon human behavioural risk factors, the diversity and ecology of animal host assemblagesand the genetic diversity within Echinococcus species which differ in their zoonotic potential and pathogenicity. Both AE and CE are regarded as neglected zoonoses, with a higher overall burden of disease for CE due to its global distribution and high regional prevalence, but a higher pathogenicity and case fatality rate for AE, especially in Asia. Over the past two decades, numerous studies have addressed the epidemiology and distribution of these Echinococcus species worldwide, resulting in better-defined boundaries of the endemic areas. This chapter presents the global distribution of Echinococcus species and human AE and CE in mapsand summarizes the global data on host assemblages, transmission, prevalence in animal definitive hosts, incidence in peopleand molecular epidemiology.

Lee T.P.,Sunway University | Muketha G.M.,Meru University of Science and Technology | Xin G.Y.,UCSI University
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2014

Statistics from Immigration Department of Malaysia has shown that the foreign workers have increased tremendously over the past 4 years. Different nationalities of foreign maids usually speak in their own mother languages from their home countries. A certain level of communication barrier between the Malaysia's employers and the foreign workers were identified in the previous study. The misunderstanding of tasks requested to their domestic maid had led to the communication barrier. The study confirmed positively that this communication barrier has occurred between the employer and the maid. In this paper, the Mobile-Assisted Instructional for Domestic Maid (MAID-M) is proposed and presented both conceptually and physically. Feedbacks of the proposed application is collected and tested. © 2005 - 2014 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, University of Ulm, Turmi Health Center, Meru University of Science and Technology and University of Hohenheim
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal for parasitology | Year: 2016

Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade.

Romig T.,University of Hohenheim | Omer R.A.,University of Leipzig | Zeyhle E.,African Medical and Research Foundation | Huttner M.,University of Hohenheim | And 10 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2011

Cystic echinococcosis occurs in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa, but the frequency of this zoonosis differs considerably among and within countries. Especially human cases seem to be focally distributed. A number of environmental and behavioural factors partially explain this pattern, i.e. density of livestock, presence of dogs, uncontrolled slaughter, and hygiene. In addition, the various taxa of Echinococcus spp. are known to differ considerably in infectivity to different host species including humans. Genetic characterizations of isolates, which are necessary to evaluate the impact of this factor - so far done in only a few countries - indicate that the diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Sub-Saharan Africa is greater than on any other continent. The very incomplete data which are available show that sympatrical taxa may infect different hosts, others may be geographically restricted, some life cycles involve livestock, others wild animals. Possible implications of this complexity for public health, livestock economy and conservation are briefly discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Muiruri S.,Vector Borne Diseases Control Unit | Kabiru E.W.,Kenyatta University | Muchiri E.M.,Vector Borne Diseases Control Unit | Hussein H.,Office Of Direct Of Health | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2015

Few studies have focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) transmission in less arid, transitional landscapes surrounding known high-risk regions. The objective of this study was to identify evidence of RVFV exposure in Bodhei Village in a forested area at the edge of the RVFV-epidemicGarissa region. In a household cluster-based survey conducted between epidemics in early 2006, 211 participants were enrolled. Overall seroprevalence for anti-RVFV was high (18%) and comparable with rates in the more arid, dense brush regions farther north. Seroprevalence of adults was 28%, whereas that of children was significantly lower (3%; P < 0.001); the youngest positive child was age 3 years. Males were more likely to be seropositive than females (25% versus 11%; P < 0.01), and animal husbandry activities (birthing, sheltering, and butchering) were strongly associated with seropositivity. The results confirm that significant RVFV transmission occurs outside of recognized high-risk areas and independent of known epidemic periods. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Kagendo D.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Kagendo D.,Meru University of Science and Technology | Magambo J.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Magambo J.,Meru University of Science and Technology | And 10 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2014

To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for further studies on the lifecycles and the possible link between wild and domestic cycles of cystic echinococcosis in eastern Africa. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

M'Thiruaine C.M.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | M'Thiruaine C.M.,Meru University of Science and Technology | Friedrich H.B.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Nyawade E.A.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Omondi B.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

The new 2,4,6-trimethylaniline complexes [Cp∗Fe(CO)2(NH2C6H2(CH3)3)]+ (3) and [CpFe(CO)2(NH2C6H2(CH3)3)]+ (4) (Cp∗ = η5-C5(CH3)5; Cp = η5-C5H5) have been synthesized and isolated in high yields as tetrafluoroborate salts. They have been fully characterized by NMR, IR, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray crystallography. For comparison purpose, the molecular structure of [CpFe(CO)2(NH2CH2C6H4OCH3)]+ (5) has been determined and discussed in relation to those of 3 and 4. Compounds 3 and 5 crystallize in monoclinic P21/c space group, while 4 crystallizes in triclinic P1¯ space group. Compounds 3 and 4 exhibited considerable thermal stabilities at temperatures as high as 170 °C, which is close to their melting points. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kalui D.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Kalui D.,Meru University of Science and Technology | Guo X.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Zhang D.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of 2016 IEEE International Conference on Big Data Analysis, ICBDA 2016 | Year: 2016

Nowadays, access to location-based services (LBSs) is becoming a central part of our daily life activities. For example, mobile phone users in Participatory sensing (PS) systems are requested to collect information from their nearby data collection points (DCs). A query typically reveals the identity and other personal information such as location, user profiles (e.g., race) and time. This knowledge enables an adversary PS server to deduce over time a comprehensive user location summary with a high degree of precision. Several privacy techniques in PS have been proposed recently to provide user privacy protection that assumes static objects. This conventional methods, there is yet scarcely any service, which entails the user to prove that she is at a particular location at a certain point in time. The reason for the lack of such facility lies in the fact that none of the location and time information achieved by nowadays mobile devices is trustworthy. Besides, only a few techniques that considers static objects and incorporate trust of the data collected by each user but exclude movements, thus assuming movement information has no impact on privacy. This existing work cannot guarantee complete privacy that cover knowledge attacks while serving requests by moving objects with uncertain motion pattern at the same time enhance credibility of collected data in PS systems. In this paper, we propose a trust assurance individualized framework to provide better quality protection to moving objects with nonlinear pattern in PS systems. Our experimental results demonstrate in our approach, moving user enjoy a high quality of service with a high degree of anonymity. © 2016 IEEE.

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