News Article | March 15, 2016
The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters has decided to award the Abel Prize for 2016 to Sir Andrew J. Wiles (62), University of Oxford, “for his stunning proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem by way of the modularity conjecture for semistable elliptic curves, opening a new era in number theory.” The President of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Ole M. Sejersted, announced the winner of the 2016 Abel Prize at the Academy in Oslo on March 15. Andrew J. Wiles will receive the Abel Prize from H.R.H. Crown Prince Haakon at an award ceremony in Oslo on May 24. The Abel Prize recognizes contributions of extraordinary depth and influence to the mathematical sciences and has been awarded annually since 2003. It carries a cash award of NOK 6,000,000 (about EUR 600,000 or USD 700,000). Andrew J. Wiles is one of very few mathematicians — if not the only one — whose proof of a theorem has made international headline news. In 1994 he cracked Fermat’s Last Theorem, which at the time was the most famous, and long-running, unsolved problem in the subject’s history. Wiles’ proof was not only the high point of his career — and an epochal moment for mathematics — but also the culmination of a remarkable personal journey that began three decades earlier. In 1963, when he was a 10-year-old boy growing up in Cambridge, England, Wiles found a copy of a book on Fermat’s Last Theorem in his local library. Wiles recalls that he was intrigued by the problem that he as a young boy could understand, and yet it had remained unsolved for three hundred years. “I knew from that moment that I would never let it go,” he said. “I had to solve it.” The Abel Committee says: “Few results have as rich a mathematical history and as dramatic a proof as Fermat’s Last Theorem.” Andrew J. Wiles, born on April 11, 1953 in Cambridge, earned his bachelor’s degree in mathematics in 1974 at Merton College, Oxford, and a Ph.D. in 1980 at Clare College, Cambridge. After a period at the Institute for Advanced Study in New Jersey in 1981, Wiles became a professor at Princeton University. In 1985-86, Wiles was a Guggenheim Fellow at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques near Paris and at the École Normale Supérieure. From 1988 to 1990, Wiles was a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, before returning to Princeton. He rejoined Oxford in 2011 as Royal Society Research Professor. Andrew J. Wiles has been awarded a number of major prizes in mathematics and science. They include the Rolf Schock Prize, the Ostrowski Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Royal Medal of the Royal Society, the U.S. National Academy of Science’s Award in Mathematics, and the Shaw Prize. The International Mathematical Union presented him with a silver plaque, the only time they have ever done so. He was awarded the inaugural Clay Research Award. In 2000, he was given a knighthood. Andrew J. Wiles is a Fellow of the Royal Society. He is a foreign member of the US National Academy of Sciences and of the French Academy of Sciences. He has honorary degrees from Oxford, Cambridge, Columbia, Yale, Warwick and Nottingham. The Abel Prize is awarded by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. The choice of the Abel Laureate is based on the recommendation of the Abel Committee, which is composed of five internationally recognized mathematicians. The members of the current committee are: John Rognes (chair), Rahul Pandharipande, Éva Tardos, Luigi Ambrosio and Marta Sanz-Solé.
Livesey G.,Independent Nutrition Logic |
Taylor R.,Merton College |
Livesey H.,Independent Nutrition Logic |
Liu S.,University of California at Los Angeles
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013
Background: Although much is known about the association between dietary glycemic load (GL) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), prospective cohort studies have not consistently shown a positive dose-response relation. Objective: We performed a comprehensive examination of evidence on the dose response that links GL to T2D and sources of heterogeneity among all prospective cohort studies on healthy adults available in the literature. Design: We conducted a systematic review of all prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses to quantify the GL-T2D relation both without and with adjustment for covariates. Results: Among 24 prospective cohort studies identified by August 2012, the GL ranged from w60 to w280 g per daily intake of 2000 kcal (8.4 MJ). In a fully adjusted meta-analysis model, the GL was positively associated with RR of T2D of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.61) for a 100-g increment in GL (P < 0.001; n = 24 studies; 7.5 million person-years of follow-up). Sex (P = 0.03), dietary instrument validity (P < 0.001), and ethnicity (European American compared with other; P = 0.04) together explained 97% of the heterogeneity among studies. After adjustment for heterogeneities, we used both funnel and trim-and-fill analyses to identify a negligible publication bias. Multiple influence, cumulative, and forecast analyses indicated that the GL-T2D relation tended to have reached stability and to have been underestimated. The relation was apparent at all doses of GL investigated, although it was statistically significant only at 95 g GL/2000 kcal. Conclusion: After we accounted for several sources of heterogeneity, findings from prospective cohort studies that related the GL to T2D appear robust and consistently indicate strong and significantly lower T2D risk in persons who consume lower-GL diets. This review was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42011001810. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.
Wren-Lewis S.,Merton College
Oxford Review of Economic Policy | Year: 2013
This paper explores the Labour government's fiscal policy performance at the macroeconomic level. This analysis is in two halves. The first covers the period up until the Great Recession, which involved a single policy regime subject to two simple fiscal rules. After discussing the theoretical and practical issues raised by these rules, I examine the extent to which they were followed by the government, and whether subsequent developments highlighted shortcomings of these rules. To what extent was the eventual failure of these rules down to over-optimistic forecasts or unforeseeable events? The second half involves the response to the Great Recession and the abandonment of the fiscal rules. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.
News Article | January 28, 2016
A clay tablet dating from 350 to 50 BC. REUTERS/Trustees of the British Museum/Mathieu Ossendrijver More WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Ancient Babylonian astronomers were way ahead of their time, using sophisticated geometric techniques that until now had been considered an achievement of medieval European scholars. That is the finding of a study published on Thursday that analyzed four clay tablets dating from 350 to 50 BC featuring the wedge-shaped ancient Babylonian cuneiform script describing how to track the planet Jupiter's path across the sky. "No one expected this," said Mathieu Ossendrijver, a professor of history of ancient science at Humboldt University in Berlin, noting that the methods delineated in the tablets were so advanced that they foreshadowed the development of calculus. "This kind of understanding of the connection between velocity, time and distance was thought to have emerged only around 1350 AD," Ossendrijver added. The methods were similar to those employed by 14th century scholars at University of Oxford's Merton College, he said. Babylon was an important city in ancient Mesopotamia, located in Iraq about 60 miles (100 kilometers) south of Baghdad. Jupiter was associated with Marduk, the city's patron god. Babylonian astronomers produced tables with computed positions of the planets, Ossendrijver said. "They provided positions needed for making horoscopes ordered by clients, and they also held the view that everything on Earth - from river levels to market prices, for example grain, and weather - is connected to the motion of the planets. So by predicting the latter they hoped to be able to predict things on Earth," Ossendrijver added. He noted that the tablets themselves do not mention anything about these astrological applications. The four tablets, excavated around 1880, were stored at the British Museum in London. The cuneiform characters were impressed in soft clay with a reed stylus and the tablets may have been stored in the scientific library of an astronomer or a temple building, Ossendrijver said. The tablets contain geometrical calculations based on a trapezoid's area, and its long and short sides. It had been thought that Babylonian astronomers relied only on arithmetical concepts, not geometric ones. The ancient Greeks also were known for using geometry, but the Babylonian tablets employ it in a more complex, abstract manner. The research was published in the journal Science.
News Article | April 4, 2016
Scientists at the University of Oxford have created synthetic tissues that possess functional properties controlled by light — including the ability to “switch on” the expression of individual genes. Made up of hundreds of interacting water droplets, these light-activated synthetic tissues could be developed into a platform to study how cells interact, for drug delivery, or even to control living tissues. The work has demonstrated that it is possible to create synthetic tissues that comprise patterned networks of interconnected compartments, each with a minimal cellular functionality that can be externally controlled by light. The research is published in the journal Science Advances. Professor Hagan Bayley of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Oxford, senior author of the study, says, “A key objective of bottom-up synthetic biology has been to build synthetic cells capable of performing simple functions. Previous research has concentrated on individual compartments, whereas we have been exploring the next level of organization in synthetic biology: the formation of tissue-like materials.” Previous work carried out by Bayley's group has seen the development of a 3D printer that creates soft structures made of hundreds of salt-containing picoliter droplets connected through lipid membranes. These structures can be given functions unattainable with individual droplets, such as the ability to fold into new shapes. However, once built, these tissue-like materials cannot be readily altered. First author Dr. Michael Booth, Junior Research Fellow at Merton College, University of Oxford, and a member of the Bayley group, says, “We have endowed these droplets with a minimal cellular functionality: the ability to express proteins from synthetic DNA genes. Furthermore, a tightly regulated light-activated DNA has been created, so protein is only formed upon illumination of the ‘synthetic cells.’ “Having induced the expression of transmembrane protein pores in selected cells by directed irradiation, we demonstrate fast directional electrical communication through the 3D printed material under stringent light-activated control. The conductive pathway formed in the 3D-printed tissue is a functional mimic of communication in the nervous system. These synthetic tissues may be developed into a biomaterial that could help repair the nervous system.” The paper, “Light-activated communication in synthetic tissues,” is published in Science Advances. Source: University of Oxford
News Article | February 20, 2017
Rigaku Corporation has published its latest edition of the Crystallography Times, which is available to view on the company’s global website. The Crystallography Times is a monthly electronic newsletter presented by Rigaku Oxford Diffraction that concentrates on life sciences and serves the X-ray analysis community. The new issue features information about the upcoming 2017 European User's Meeting for the single crystal diffraction community, to be held at Merton College of the University of Oxford on 22nd to 23rd of March. “Crystallography in the News” is a comprehensive section of the newsletter that aggregates the latest developments in life sciences from around the world and showcases the newest research findings and developments. A lengthy list of links to recent crystallographic papers is also included. The Product Spotlight in the current issue features the Rigaku BioSAXS-2000 Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) Kratky camera system, based on a patented two-dimensional Kratky design and engineered specifically to meet the needs of structural biologists. The BioSAXS-2000 SAXS camera takes up considerably less space than a conventional 3-pinhole camera but offers better flux characteristics. The newsletter also offers a user forum, where readers can find discussions about software, general crystallography issues and other topics related to single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Featured videos, “Lab in the Spotlight” profiles, book reviews and user surveys are regular features of the newsletter. Readers can subscribe to the newsletter or view the current issue online at https://www.rigaku.com/subscribe About Rigaku Since its inception in Japan in 1951, Rigaku has been at the forefront of analytical and industrial instrumentation technology. Rigaku and its subsidiaries form a global group focused on general-purpose analytical instrumentation and the life sciences. With hundreds of major innovations to their credit, Rigaku companies are world leaders in X-ray spectrometry, diffraction, and optics, as well as small molecule and protein crystallography and semiconductor metrology. Today, Rigaku employs over 1,400 people in the manufacturing and support of its analytical equipment, which is used in more than 90 countries around the world supporting research, development, and quality assurance activities. Throughout the world, Rigaku continuously promotes partnerships, dialog, and innovation within the global scientific and industrial communities. For further information, contact:
News Article | October 25, 2016
Nordic Mines AB (publ) har utsett Tony Butler till ny CFO i bolaget. Tony tillträder sin befattning den 25 oktober 2016. Tony kommer närmast från Legacy Hill Resources där han är Head of Finance med ansvar för alla delar av corporate finance, finansiell planering, system och kontroll. Tony har tidigare varit styrelseledamot för Cutfield Freeman & Co där han var verksam under 8 år samt Vice President för Metals & Mining vid Nomura International. Tony har lett flera transaktioner, bland annat inom publik M&A, kapitalanskaffningar genom både equity och debt capital markets samt såväl joint ventures som projekt- och offtakefinansieringar för flera olika typer av gruvbolag, alltifrån stora bolag som Rio Tinto och Anglo American till små gruvbolag med enstaka gruvor. Tony har arbetat med bolag som är börsnoterade på bland annat London Stock Exchange, Toronto Stock Exchange och Australia Securities Exchange. Tony har examina från Merton College i Oxford och Kings College i London samt en Graduate Diploma i juridik.
News Article | January 29, 2016
Regardless of the time period, it seems the skies have always held humanity’s attention. The Babylonians were no different. Previously, science historians assumed these ancient astronomers utilized arithmetical methods to track the movement of the stars and planets. New research published in Science, however, points out that Babylonian astronomers working at least between 350 and 50 BCE were employing sophisticated geometric methods, techniques which historians previously believed did not arise until the 14th century. “The idea of computing a body’s displacement as an area in time-velocity is usually traced back to 14th century Europe,” writes Prof. Mathieu Ossendrijver, a science historian at Berlin’s Humboldt Univ. “I show that in four ancient Babylonian cuneiform tablets, Jupiter’s displacement along the ecliptic is computed as an area of a trapezoidal figure obtained by drawing its daily displacement against time. This interpretation is prompted by a newly discovered tablet on which the same computation is presented in an equivalent arithmetical formulation.” For years, Ossendrijver traveled to the British Museum to peruse their catalogue of Babylonian cuneiform tablets. The historian focused specifically on four tablets unearthed during the 19th century, which presented astronomical calculations and instructions for constructing a trapezoidal figure. Ossendrijver, knowing of the Babylonian’s affinity for Jupiter due to its association with the deity Marduk, attempted to figure out if the trapezoidal figure somehow related to the gas giant. A breakthrough came in 2014, when Assyriologist Hermann Hunger presented Ossendrijver with an old photograph of an uncatalogued tablet from the British Museum. Ossendrijver realized the computation on the tablet in the photograph matched those in the trapezoid descriptions. Comparing all the tablets, Ossendrijver discovered the Jupiter connection. The computation covered a 60-day period that started when Jupiter became visible as a morning star. “The crucial new insight provided by the new tablet without the geometrical figure is that Jupiter’s velocity decreases linearly within the 60 days. Because of the linear decrease a trapezoidal figure emerges if one draws the velocity against time,” said Ossendrijver. “It is this trapezoidal figure of which the area is computed on the other four tablets.” The astronomers also calculated when Jupiter reached the halfway point by dividing the trapezoid into two equal areas. According to Ossendrijver, similar techniques to the Babylonian method inscribed in cuneiform cropped up in the 14th century when mathematicians at Oxford’s Merton College developed the “Mertonian mean speed theorem.”
News Article | October 25, 2016
Nordic Mines AB (publ) is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Tony Butler as CFO, effective 25 October 2016. Tony joins Nordic Mines from Legacy Hill Resources where he is Head of Finance and thus responsible for all aspects of corporate finance, financial planning, systems and controls. Tony was previously a director at Cutfield Freeman & Co, where he spent 8 years and has worked as Vice Preseident at Metals & Mining at Nomura International. Tony has led transactions including public market M&A, debt and equity fundraising, as well as joint ventures such as project and offtake finance for mining companies, ranging from Rio Tinto and Anglo American to single asset juniors. Tony has worked with companies listed on the London, Australian and Toronto stock exchanges amongst others. Tony has degrees from Merton College, Oxford, Kings College, London and a Graduate Diploma in Law. Nordic Mines is also pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Rune Nordström, as its Head of Corporate Communications and Investor Relations, effective 25 October 2016. Rune is an expert in corporate communications, public affairs & investor relations, with over 20 years of experience. He has previously worked with institutions such as AstraZeneca, SWECO Cres, Sector Alarm, the Government Offices of Sweden, Stockholm County Council and the City of Stockholm. Rune has a degree in business communications from IHM Business School, Stockholm, as well as a degree from Stockholm University. With these appointments, the Board feels that the company now have strong financial and IR teams, focused on executing Nordic Mines' transformation strategy. Nordic Mines' previous CFO Mr. Lars Vilhelmson and IR-consultant Mr. Joakim Kindahl have resigned from their positions in Nordic Mines. For more information about Nordic Mines, please visit; www.nordicmines.com This information is Nordic Mines AB (publ) obliged to make public pursuant to the EU Market Abuse Regulation, the Swedish Securities Market Act and/or Financial Instruments Trading Act. The information was submitted for publication, through the agency of the contact person set out above, at 12:00 noon CET on 25 October 2016. Nordic Mines is a Nordic mining and exploration company. The Laiva mine in Finland produced gold between 2011 and 2014. The deposit is among the largest in the Nordic region. Nordic Mines is a member of SveMin and applies its reporting regulations for public mining and exploration companies. The Nordic Mines share has been admitted for trading on Nasdaq Stockholm's Small Cap list. For further information, see www.nordicmines.com.
News Article | January 29, 2016
Left: Cuneiform tablet with calculations involving a trapezoid. Right: A visualization of trapezoid procedure on the tablet: The distance travelled by Jupiter after 60 days, 10º45', is computed as the area of the trapezoid. The trapezoid is then divided into two smaller ones in order to find the time (tc) in which Jupiter covers half this distance. Credit: Mathieu Ossendrijver (HU) Ancient Babylonians are now believed to have calculated the position of Jupiter using geometry. This is revealed by an analysis of three published and two unpublished cuneiform tablets from the British Museum by Prof. Mathieu Ossendrijver, historian of science of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. The tablets date from the period between 350 and 50 BCE. Historians of science have thus far assumed that geometrical computations of the kind found on these tablets were first carried out in the 14th century. Moreover, it was assumed that Babylonian astronomers used only arithmetical methods. "The new interpretation reveals that Babylonian astronomers also used geometrical methods", says Mathieu Ossendrijver. His results are published in the current issue of the journal Science. On four of these tablets, the distance covered by Jupiter is computed as the area of a figure that represents how its velocity changes with time. None of the tablets contains drawings but, as Mathieu Ossendrijver explains, the texts describe the figure of which the area is computed as a trapezoid. Two of these so-called trapezoid texts had been known since 1955, but their meaning remained unclear, even after two further tablets with these operations were discovered in recent years. One reason for this was the damaged state of the tablets, which were excavated unscientifically in Babylon, near its main temple Esagila, in the 19th century. Another reason was, that the calculations could not be connected to a particular planet. The new interpretation of the trapezoid texts was now prompted by a newly discovered, almost completely preserved fifth tablet. A colleague from Vienna who visited the Excellence Cluster TOPOI in 2014, the retired Professor of Assyriology Hermann Hunger, draw the attention of Mathieu Ossendrijver to this tablet. He presented him with an old photograph of the tablet that was made in the British Museum. The new tablet does not mention a trapezoid figure, but it does contain a computation that is mathematically equivalent to the other ones. This computations can be uniquely assigned to the planet Jupiter. With this new insight the other, thus far incomprehensible tablets could also be deciphered. In all five tablets, Jupiter's daily displacement and its total displacement along its orbit, both expressed in degrees, are described for the first 60 days after Jupiter becomes visible as a morning star. Mathieu Ossendrijver explains: "The crucial new insight provided by the new tablet without the geometrical figure is that Jupiter's velocity decreases linearly within the 60 days. Because of the linear decrease a trapezoidal figure emerges if one draws the velocity against time." "It is this trapezoidal figure of which the area is computed on the other four tablets", says the historian of science. The area of this figure is explicitly declared to be the distance travelled by Jupiter after 60 days. Moreover, the time when Jupiter covers half this distance is also calculated, by dividing the trapezoid into two smaller ones of equal area. "These computations anticipate the use of similar techniques by European scholars, but they were carried out at least 14 centuries earlier", says Ossendrijver. The so-called Oxford calculators, a group of scholastic mathematicians, who worked at Merton College, Oxford, in the 14th century, are credited with the "Mertonian mean speed theorem". This theorem yields the distance travelled by a uniformly decelerating body, corresponding to the modern formula S=t•(u+v)/2, where u and v are the initial and final velocities. In the same century Nicole Oresme, a bishop and scholastic philosopher in Paris, devised graphical methods that enabled him to prove this relation. He computed S as the area of a trapezoid of width t and heights u and v. The Babylonian trapezoid procedures can be viewed as a concrete examples of the same computation. Furthermore, it was hitherto assumed that the astronomers in Babylon used arithmetical methods but no geometrical ones, even though they were common in Babylonian mathematics since 1800 BCE. Ancient Greek astronomers from the time between 350 BCE and 150 CE are also known for their use of geometrical methods. However, the Babylonian trapezoid texts are distinct from the geometrical calculations of their Greek colleagues. The trapezoid figures do not describe configurations in a real space, but they come about by drawing the velocity of the planet against time. As opposed to the geometrical constructions of the Greek astronomers the Babylonian trapezoid figures exist in an abstract mathematical space, defined by time on the x-axis and velocity on the y-axis. More information: M. Ossendrijver. Ancient Babylonian astronomers calculated Jupiters position from the area under a time-velocity graph, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8085