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Benson K.F.,NIS Labs | Redman K.A.,NIS Labs | Carter S.G.,NIS Labs | Keller D.,Ganeden Biotech | And 3 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

AIM: To study the effects of probiotic metabolites on maturation stage of antigen-presenting immune cells. METHODS: Ganeden Bacillus coagulans 30 (GBC30) bacterial cultures in log phase were used to isolate the secreted metabolite (MET) fraction. A second fraction was made to generate a crude cell-wall-enriched fraction, by centrifugation and lysis, followed by washing. A preparation of MET was subjected to size exclusion centrifugation, generating three fractions: < 3 kDa, 3-30 kDa, and 30-200 kDa and activities were tested in comparison to crude MET and cell wall in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) as a source of antigen-presenting mononuclear phagocytes. The maturation status of mononuclear phagocytes was evaluated by staining with monoclonal antibodies towards CD14, CD16, CD80 and CD86 and analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment of PBMC with MET supported maturation of mononuclear phagocytes toward both macrophage and dendritic cell phenotypes. The biological activity unique to the metabolites included a reduction of CD14+ CD16+ pro-inflammatory cells, and this property was associated with the high molecular weight metabolite fraction. Changes were also seen for the dendritic cell maturation markers CD80 and CD86. On CD14dim cells, an increase in both CD80 and CD86 expression was seen, in contrast to a selective increase in CD86 expression on CD14 bright cells. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 indicates effective antigen presentation to T cells and support of T helper cell differentiation. The selective expression of CD86 in the absence of CD80 points to a role in generating T regulatory cells. CONCLUSION: The data show that a primary mechanism of action of GBC30 metabolites involves support of more mature phenotypes of antigen-presenting cells, important for immunological decision-making. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Schauss A.G.,Meridian Life Sciences, Inc.
Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine | Year: 2012

Heroin addiction is a serious health and social problem that afflicts societies around the world. Its addicting characteristics have been known for thousands of years. Derived from opium, obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), heroin is highly addictive. Conventional approaches to heroin withdrawal involve the use of synthetic or semi-synthetic opioids, with or without concomitant behavioral therapy. A study conducted in New York City in the 1960s, demonstrated that by giving increasing doses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) salts administered orally in water or juice during withdrawal, vitamin C blocked opioid receptors in the brain, and attenuated withdrawal symptoms, encouraging heroin addicts to end their dependence on heroin. A 19 78 field visit to Seattle, Washington, by officials of the National Institute for Drug Abuse and Alcoholism (NIDAA) at the U.S. National Institutes for Health (NIH), confirmed its effectiveness, yet the agency to date has failed to provide funding to support further research on this promising treatment modality. Despite serious reported side effects, pharmacotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of heroin-dependence prevail with support by NIDAA, while nutrient-based therapies, that could help break the cycle of addiction, are disregarded.

Raman J.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Raman J.,National Health Research Institute | Guan Y.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Guan Y.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 5 more authors.
Glycobiology | Year: 2012

The formation of mucin-type O-glycans is initiated by an evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes, the UDP-N-acetyl α-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts). The human genome encodes 20 transferases; 17 of which have been characterized functionally. The complexity of the GalNAc-T family reflects the differential patterns of expression among the individual enzyme isoforms and the unique substrate specificities which are required to form the dense arrays of glycans that are essential for mucin function. We report the expression patterns and enzymatic activity of the remaining three members of the family and the further characterization of a recently reported isoform, GalNAc-T17. One isoform, GalNAcT-16 that is most homologous to GalNAc-T14, is widely expressed (abundantly in the heart) and has robust polypeptide transferase activity. The second isoform GalNAc-T18, most similar to GalNAc-T8,-T9 and-T19, completes a discrete subfamily of GalNAc-Ts. It is widely expressed and has low, albeit detectable, activity. The final isoform, GalNAc-T20, is most homologous to GalNAc-T11 but lacks a lectin domain and has no detectable transferase activity with the panel of substrates tested. We have also identified and characterized enzymatically active splice variants of GalNAc-T13 that differ in the sequence of their lectin domain. The variants differ in their affinities for glycopeptide substrates. Our findings provide a comprehensive view of the complexities of mucin-type O-glycan formation and provide insight into the underlying mechanisms employed to heavily decorate mucins and mucin-like domains with carbohydrate. © The Author 2012.

Wu X.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Wu X.,Hershey Company | Schauss A.G.,Meridian Life Sciences, Inc.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Constant overproduction of pro-inflammatory molecules leads to chronic inflammation. Unlike acute inflammation, which is essential for healing, chronic inflammation can delay healing and, if left unchecked, contribute to a host of diseases. There is growing evidence that some dietary factors can play important roles in maintaining health and even reversing the progression of chronic diseases, with anti-inflammatory effects as important underlying mechanism. Such findings add to the body of evidence that certain dietary components, including polyphenols and other types of compounds, found in various dietary factors including fruits, berries, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and foods of marine origin, can play an important role in attenuating and mitigating chronic pro-inflammatory processes associated with chronic diseases. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Meridian Life Sciences, Inc. | Date: 2012-03-13

biochemicals, namely, reagents, assays, antigens and antibodies for diagnostic use in scientific and medical laboratory research and diagnostics.

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