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Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Laurenson Y.C.S.M.,Roslin Institute | Bishop S.C.,Roslin Institute | Forbes A.B.,MERIAL | Kyriazakis I.,Northumbria University

SUMMARY Refugia-based treatment strategies aim to prolong anthelmintic efficacy by maintaining a parasite population unexposed to anthelmintics. Targeted selective treatment (TST) achieves this by treating only animals that will benefit most from treatment, using a determinant criterion (DC). We developed a mathematical model to compare various traits proposed as DC, and investigate impacts of TST and drenching frequency on sheep performance and anthelmintic resistance. Short term, decreasing the proportion of animals drenched reduced benefits of anthelmintic treatment, assessed by empty body weight (EBW), but decreased the rate of anthelmintic resistance development; each consecutive drenching had a reduced impact on average EBW and an increased impact on the rate of anthelmintic resistance emergences. The optimal DC was fecal egg count, maintaining the highest average EBW when reducing the proportion of animals drenched. Long-term, reducing the proportion of animals drenched had little impact on total weight gain benefits, across animals and years, whilst reducing drenching frequency increased it. Decreasing the frequency and proportion of animals drenched were both predicted to increase the duration of anthelmintic efficacy but reduce the total number of drenches administered before resistance was observed. TST and frequency of drenching may lead to different benefits in the short versus long term. © Cambridge University Press 2013. Source

Beugnet F.,MERIAL | Chalvet-Monfray K.,Ecole Veterinaire de Lyon
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Vector-borne diseases are medically important in humans and animals but were long considered tropical and known to first affect production animals. This is no longer true and we can see today that they are common in domestic animals and that they are also present in temperate countries, especially in Europe. In recent years, an increase in the diagnosis of vector borne diseases among humans and animals has been observed, which may partly due to the development of diagnostic tools. Their study requires exchanges and collaborations between the many actors involved, especially since the epidemiology seems to be constantly evolving. The veterinary practitioner is the first one to notice the emergence of cases and to implement prevention measures. He also acts as a sentinel to alert epidemiologists. Many factors can explain the epidemiological changes, i.e. all human factors, such as the increase in commercial transportation, but also owners traveling with their pet during the holidays, the development of "outdoor" activities, the increase of individual housings with gardens; to these human factors must be added the ignorance of the risks, linked to animals in general and to wildlife in particular; then the environmental changes: forest fragmentation, establishment of parks; the increase of wild mammal populations (deer, carnivores, rodents, etc.); finally, climate changes. Climate change is a reality which may explain the increase of density of arthropod vectors, but also of their hosts, changes in periods of activity and variations in geographical distribution. The authors show the proof of the climate modifications and then explain how it has an impact in Europe on ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and even fleas. They conclude on the practical consequences for veterinary practitioners, especially with the diagnosis of parasitic diseases or diseases in areas where they usually do not occur. However, not any epidemiological modification should be linked to climate change, since many other factors are involved and often even overriding. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Beugnet F.,MERIAL | Franc M.,Ecole Veterinaire de Toulouse
Trends in Parasitology

External antiparasitic drugs used in cats and dogs have evolved in terms of active ingredients but also regarding formulations. Old chemical groups have been supplanted by phenylpyrazoles, neonicotinoids, oxadiazines, spinosyns or others which are entering the veterinary market. In addition to insecticides-acaricides, insect and mite growth inhibitors (IGRs) have emerged. These IGRs are used in animals or in the environment, either alone or in combination with insecticides-acaricides. The notion of antiparasitic treatment has evolved to the concept of prevention of ectoparasite infestation but also of transmitted diseases through the introduction of formulations providing long-lasting activity. At the same time, ease-of-use has been improved with the development of spot-on formulations. Progress has also been achieved through the development of antiparasitic drugs providing control of both external and internal parasites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

In Japan, an epidemiological survey was performed in dogs from October to December 2008 by using a quantitative measurement method for antigen-specific IgE towards specific Ctenocephalides felis antigens. 214 dogs from 22 veterinary clinics were included. These clinics were located as follows, from North to South: Hokkaido, Aomori, Fukushima, Tochigi, Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo (Tama-City and Ota-ku), Kanagawa, Gifu, Niigata, Kyoto, Nara, Osaka, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. 110 dogs (51.4 %) were seropositive for flea-specific IgE. No differences were associated with gender or breed. This survey confirms that flea infestation in dogs is a common problem in Japan. It especially shows that the infestation also occurs in Northern Japan where fleas are considered uncommon by the vet. Source

Quimby J.M.,Colorado State University | Gustafson D.L.,Colorado State University | Samber B.J.,MERIAL | Lunn K.F.,Colorado State University
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Mirtazapine pharmacokinetics was studied in 10 healthy cats. Blood was collected before, and at intervals up to 72 h after, oral dose of 3.75 mg (high dose: HD) or 1.88 mg (low dose: LD) of mirtazapine. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure mirtazapine, 8-hydroxymirtazapine and glucuronide metabolite concentrations. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling was performed. Median half-life was 15.9 h (HD) and 9.2 h (LD). Using Mann-Whitney analysis, a statistically significant difference between the elimination half-life, clearance, area under the curve (AUC) per dose, and AUC ∞/dose of the groups was found. Mirtazapine does not appear to display linear pharmacokinetics in cats. There was no significant difference in glucuronidated metabolite concentration between groups. Pharmacodynamics was studied in 14 healthy cats administered placebo, LD and HD mirtazapine orally once in a crossover, blinded trial. In comparison with placebo, cats ingested significantly more food when mirtazapine was administered. No difference in food ingestion was seen between HD and LD, but significantly more behavior changes were seen with the HD. Limited serum sampling during the pharmacodynamic study revealed drug exposure comparable with the pharmacokinetic study, but no correlation between exposure and food consumed. Mirtazapine (LD) was administered daily for 6 days with no drug accumulation detected. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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