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Sahm L.J.,University College Cork | Sahm L.J.,Mercy University Hospital Cork | Wolf M.S.,Northwestern University | Curtis L.M.,Northwestern University | McCarthy S.,University College Cork
Journal of Health Communication | Year: 2012

The authors conducted 2 health literacy investigations in Cork, Ireland. Study 1 was undertaken in 5 community pharmacies and the outpatient department of 2 urban hospitals and assessed patients health literacy skills using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Study 2 took place in 1 outpatient department and evaluated health literacy using the REALM and the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy.in Adults (S-TOFHLA). The authors collected data relating to age, gender, ethnicity, and educational level achieved. All subjects were asked items relating to their ability to use health-specific materials. A total of 1,759 people (61.2% female) completed either Study 1 (n=1,339) or Study 2 (n=420). Limited health literacy ranged from 18.4% (REALM) and 57.2% (NVS) in Study 1, and 21.9% (REALM) and 14.1% (S-TOFHLA) in Study 2 and was associated with increased age and lower educational attainment across all three tools (p<.001). Patients with limited health literacy were significantly more likely to report problems with using health materials received from a doctor or pharmacist. At minimum, 1 in 7 Irish adults were found to have limited health literacy, which may affect their ability to promote, protect, and manage health. As in the United States and in the United Kingdom, improving health literacy should be a public health objective for Ireland. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ahmad S.,University College Cork | Sweeney P.,Mercy University Hospital Cork | Sullivan G.C.,University College Cork | Tangney M.,University College Cork
Genetic Vaccines and Therapy | Year: 2012

Development of various vaccines for prostate cancer (PCa) is becoming an active research area. PCa vaccines are perceived to have less toxicity compared with the available cytotoxic agents. While various immune-based strategies can elicit anti-tumour responses, DNA vaccines present increased efficacy, inducing both humoural and cellular immunity. This immune activation has been proven effective in animal models and initial clinical trials are encouraging. However, to validate the role of DNA vaccination in currently available PCa management paradigms, strong clinical evidence is still lacking. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of DNA vaccines and aims to provide a summary of preclinical and clinical trials outlining the benefits of this immunotherapy in the management of PCa. © 2012 Ahmad et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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