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O'Connor O.J.,University College Cork | Fitzgerald E.,Mercy University Hospital | Maher M.M.,University College Cork | Maher M.M.,Cork University Hospital
American Journal of Roentgenology | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE. In this article, we will discuss the current status of imaging in patients with hematuria of urologic origin. Issues impacting evaluation of these patients with radiography, excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, and sonography will be discussed. CONCLUSION. Conventional radiography has no role in the detection of renal or urothelial carcinoma. Lowdose CT offers much greater sensitivities for the detection of urinary tract calculi than radiography at doses equivalent to conventional radiography. Ultrasound alone is insufficient for imaging of hematuria. Using ultrasound alone, it is often difficult to differentiate renal transitional cell carcinoma from other causes of filling defects of the renal collecting system such as blood clots, sloughed papillae, or fungus balls. The prominence of the role of excretory urography in the evaluation of patients with hematuria has diminished, and MDCT urography is now preferred to excretory urography in most cases. © American Roentgen Ray Society.

Ajagbe O.B.,University College Cork | Kabair Z.,University College Cork | O'Connor T.,Mercy University Hospital
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: We conducted a survival analysis of all the confirmed cases of Adult Tuberculosis (TB) patients treated in Cork-City, Ireland. The aim of this study was to estimate Survival time (ST), including median time of survival and to assess the association and impact of covariates (TB risk factors) to event status and ST. The outcome of the survival analysis is reported in this paper.Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study research design to review data of 647 bacteriologically confirmed TB patients from the medical record of two teaching hospitals. Mean age 49 years (Range 18-112). We collected information on potential risk factors of all confirmed cases of TB treated between 2008-2012. For the survival analysis, the outcome of interest was 'treatment failure' or 'death' (whichever came first). A univariate descriptive statistics analysis was conducted using a non-parametric procedure, Kaplan-Meier (KM) method to estimate overall survival (OS), while the Cox proportional hazard model was used for the multivariate analysis to determine possible association of predictor variables and to obtain adjusted hazard ratio. P value was set at <0.05, log likelihood ratio test at >0.10. Data were analysed using SPSS version 15.0.Results: There was no significant difference in the survival curves of male and female patients. (Log rank statistic = 0.194, df = 1, p = 0.66) and among different age group (Log rank statistic = 1.337, df = 3, p = 0.72). The mean overall survival (OS) was 209 days (95%CI: 92-346) while the median was 51 days (95% CI: 35.7-66). The mean ST for women was 385 days (95%CI: 76.6-694) and for men was 69 days (95%CI: 48.8-88.5). Multivariate Cox regression showed that patient who had history of drug misuse had 2.2 times hazard than those who do not have drug misuse. Smokers and alcohol drinkers had hazard of 1.8 while patients born in country of high endemicity (BICHE) had hazard of 6.3 and HIV co-infection hazard was 1.2.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in survival curves of male and female and among age group. Women had a higher ST compared to men. But men had a higher hazard rate compared to women. Anti-TNF, immunosuppressive medication and diabetes were found to be associated with longer ST, while alcohol, smoking, RICHE, BICHE was associated with shorter ST. © 2014 Ajagbe et al.

Frohlich S.,National University of Ireland | Lambe E.,Mercy University Hospital | O'Dea J.,Mid Western Regional Hospital
Irish Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2011

The recreational use of the so-called "legalhighs" has been in both the medical and political arena over the last year as a result of the appearance of "head shops" in many towns in Ireland. These shops specialized in selling new psychotropic compounds that circumvented established drug legislation. Little is known about the potentially harmful effects of these substances but case reports suggest a plethora of harmful psychological and physical effects. Our case describes for the first time acute liver failure associated with the ingestion of two of these amphetamine type compounds. © Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2010.

Kelly C.M.,Mercy University Hospital | Power D.G.,Mercy University Hospital | Lichtman S.M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

The introduction of targeted therapy has ushered in the era of personalized medicine in cancer therapy. The increased understanding of tumor heterogeneity has led to the determination of specific targets that can be exploited in treatment. This review highlights approved drugs in different therapeutic classes, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, drugs targeted to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, BRAF-mutation targeted drugs, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. There have not been elderly patient-specific trials of these therapies. Most of the data are extrapolated from larger trials in which older patients generally were a fraction of the participants. Therapeutic recommendations are made on the basis of this analysis with the recognition that the older clinical trial participants may not be representative of patients seen in daily practice. Patient selection and geriatric evaluation are critical for appropriate drug selection, dosing, and monitoring. With care, these therapies are a major step forward in the safe and effective treatment of older patients with cancer. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Medical therapy has become first line treatment for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) and in many cases TURP may no longer be required. Proof and quantification of this evolution in practice has been somewhat elusive and provided the principle impetus for this study. This is a retrospective study of BPH management in Republic of Ireland from 1995 to 2008. National treatment databases were sourced for numbers undergoing TURP and pharmacotherapy prescribing data was obtained from individual pharmaceutical companies. A total of 28,240 TURP's were performed nationally between 1995 and 2008. TURP's performed annually, decreased by 1,494 (51%), alpha-blocker prescriptions increased from 8,710 to 302,159 units and the number of urology trainees increased by 10 (60%). Clear association between decreases in TURP's and increases in pharmacotherapy for BPH is demonstrated. Implications on training likely exist and will require proper evaluation in order to maintain future standards in this surgical practice.

Meagher D.J.,University of Limerick | McLoughlin L.,University of Limerick | Leonard M.,University of Limerick | Hannon N.,University of Limerick | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Despite the significant burden of delirium among hospitalized adults, no pharmacologic intervention is approved for delirium treatment. Antipsychotic agents are the best studied but there are uncertainties as to how these agents can be optimally applied in everyday practice. We searched Medline and PubMed databases for publications from 1980 to April 2012 to identify studies of delirium treatmentwith antipsychoticagents. Studies of primary preventionusing pharmacotherapywerenot included.We identified 28 prospective studies that met our inclusion criteria, of which 15were comparison studies (11 randomized), 2 of which were placebo-controlled. The quality of comparison studies was assessed using the Jadad scale. The DRS (N = 12) and DRS-R98 (N = 9) were the most commonly used instruments for measuring responsiveness. These studies suggest that around 75% of delirious patients who receive short-term treatment with low-dose antipsychotics experience clinical response. Response rates appear quite consistent across different patient groups and treatment settings. Studies do not suggest significant differences in efficacy for haloperidol versus atypical agents, but report higher rates of extrapyramidal side effects with haloperidol. Comorbid dementia may be associated with reduced response rates but this requires further study. The available evidence does not indicate major differences in response rates between clinical subtypes of delirium. The extent towhich therapeutic effects can be explained by alleviation of specific symptoms (e.g. sleep or behavioral disturbances) versus a syndromal effect that encompasses both cognitive and noncognitive symptoms of delirium is not known. Future research needs to explore the relationship between therapeutic effects and changes in pathophysiological markers of delirium. Less than half of reportswere rated as reasonable quality evidence on the Jadad scale, highlighting the need for future studies of better quality design, and in particular incorporating placebocontrolled work.

Conroy L.,Mercy University Hospital
Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2015

;Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http://www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication.Lumbar intervertebral disk protrusion can cause excruciating pain in severe cases, which can be exacerbated by activity such as sitting down and straining at stool. Acute sciatica due to disk rupture will improve within 1 to 3 months. The efficacy of drugs used for the management of sciatica in primary care is unclear. Severe cases can require opioid analgesia, however people taking opioids for pain relief frequently present with opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. The use of transforaminal steroid injections is a controversial issue and repeat steroid injections should be considered in light of the risk-benefit profile of the individual patient. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 3, © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc

Ferris H.,Mercy University Hospital
Irish medical journal | Year: 2012

Pancreatico-pleural fistula secondary to chronic pancreatitis is a rare cause of pleural effusion. This case report presents a case of a middle aged female, a known case of chronic pancreatitis who presented with severe epigastric pain and progressive shortness of breath. CT and MRCP were useful in visualising the fistulous communication between the pancreas and pleural cavity. Treatment consisted of ERCP placement of a pancreatic stent, which facilitated internal drainage of pancreatic fluid thus resolving the pleural effusion and promoting healing of the fistula.

Conrick-Martin I.,Mercy University Hospital
Irish medical journal | Year: 2011

Antimicrobial therapies in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) need to be appropriate in both their antimicrobial cover and duration. We performed a prospective observational study of admissions to our semi-closed ICU over a three-month period and recorded the indications for antimicrobial therapy, agents used, duration of use, changes in therapy and reasons for changes in therapy. A change in therapy was defined as the initiation or discontinuation of an antimicrobial agent. There were 51 patients admitted during the three-month study period and all received antimicrobial therapy. There were 135 changes in antimicrobial therapy. 89 (66%) were made by the ICU team and 32 (24%) were made by the primary team. Changes were made due to a deterioration or lack of clinical response in 41 (30%) cases, due to the completion of prescribed course in 36 (27%) cases, and in response to a sensitivity result in 25 (19%) cases. Prophylactic antibiotic courses (n=24) were of a duration greater than 24 hours in 15 (63%) instances. In conclusion, the majority of changes in antimicrobial therapy were not culture-based and the duration of surgical prophylaxis was in excess of current recommended guidelines.

O'Callaghan M.,Mercy University Hospital
BMJ case reports | Year: 2012

A previously healthy 35-year-old Caucasian woman developed left body (including facial) hemianaesthesia, asymmetrical lower cranial nerve palsies and cerebellar signs after a 4-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Serial blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures returned negative for a culprit organism. CSF examination revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and an elevated protein count. CSF cytological examination identified plasma cells. MRI of brain showed multiple ring-enhancing 'abscess-like' lesions in the brainstem and upper cervical cord together with abnormal meningeal enhancement. A decision was made to treat her empirically for Listeria rhombencephalitis to which she responded completely. CSF PCR eventually returned positive for Listeria monocytogenes. This case illustrates the utility of clinical features, MRI, CSF cytology and PCR in diagnosis and treatment of culture negative L monocytogenes rhombencephalitis in an immunocompetent individual.

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