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Chicago Ridge, IL, United States

Melek J.,Mercy Hospital and Medical Center | Melek J.,Alexandria University | Sakuraba A.,University of Chicago
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Background & Aims: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk for osteoporosis and fracture. However, the efficacy of medical treatments for osteoporosis in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with IBD has not been well characterized. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical therapies used for low BMD in patients with IBD (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or indeterminate colitis). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google scholar, the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies that assessed the efficacy of medical treatment for low BMD in patients with IBD. We also manually searched abstracts from scientific meetings and bibliographies of identified articles for additional references. The primary outcome assessed was changes in BMD at the lumbar spine. We also collected data on hip BMD, numbers of new fractures, and adverse effects. Data were pooled by using random-effects models and by mixed-effects analysis for primary aims, when subgroup analysis by individual drug was possible. Results: We analyzed data from 19 randomized controlled studies; 2 used calcium and vitamin D as therapies, 13 used bisphosphonates, 4 used fluoride, 1 used calcitonin, and 1 used low-impact exercise. The pooled effect of bisphosphonates was greater than that of controls in increasing BMD at the lumbar spine (standard difference in means, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.72) and hip (standard difference in means, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.49) with comparable tolerability, and the risk of vertebral fractures was reduced. Fluoride increased lumbar spine BMD, but its ability to reduce risk of fracture was unclear. There was no evidence that the other interventions increased BMD. Conclusions: On the basis of a meta-analysis, bisphosphonate is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of low BMD in patients with IBD and reduces the risk of vertebral fractures. There are insufficient data to support the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D, fluoride, calcitonin, or low-impact exercise. However, the small number of randomized controlled trials limited our meta-analysis. © 2014 AGA Institute. Source

Sakuraba A.,University of Chicago | Keyashian K.,University of Chicago | Melek J.,Mercy Hospital and Medical Center | Melek J.,Alexandria University | And 3 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Background: Natalizumab is an efficacious agent for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who have failed anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of natalizumab outside of clinical trial at a US tertiary center. Methods: Retrospective case review of patients with CD receiving natalizumab. Results: Forty-nine patients with CD (28 women; median age, 33 years) receiving natalizumab from April 2008 to November 2011 were identified. Median duration of disease was 180 months (range, 36-576 months); 40 patients had ileocolonic disease, 1 had ileal disease, and 8 had colonic disease. Twenty-one patients had penetrating disease, and 28 had a history of CD-related surgical treatment. Forty-seven patients previously failed treatment with at least 1 anti-TNF agent. Median duration of natalizumab treatment was 7 months (interquartile range, 3-21.5 months). Twenty-four patients (49%) were continuing natalizumab at the time of this review, and 25 discontinued treatment because of the lack of response, side effects, or positive JC virus antibody. Seventeen patients (35%) successfully continued treatment with natalizumab for longer than 12 months, and nonpenetrating disease phenotype was identified as a predictor of longer response (compared with penetrating phenotype; P = 0.013). Nine patients (18.4%) experienced adverse effects, 5 of which were serious, but no case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurred. Conclusions: This is the largest series of natalizumab-treated patients with CD. Our results show that natalizumab is an efficacious and safe treatment agent for patients refractory to anti-TNF agents and that nonpenetrating disease phenotype has more durable response over time. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. Source

Fink A.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Gonzalez R.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lisowski T.,Mercy Hospital and Medical Center | Pini M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cardiac Failure

Background: Fatigue is a prominent and poorly understood symptom of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue correlated with immune biomarkers and prognosis. Methods/Results: In patients with HFrEF (N = 59) and healthy controls (N = 25), we prospectively measured fatigue (Profile of Mood States), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and immune biomarkers (plasma C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNFα], and interleukins [IL-6 and IL-10]). Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) mortality risk scores were determined. Patients with HFrEF had significantly greater fatigue and depressive symptoms and poorer sleep quality compared to control subjects. When controlling for depressive symptoms, however, fatigue did not differ significantly between patients with HFrEF and controls. Patients with HFrEF had significantly lower levels of IL-10 compared to controls. Cytokines did not correlate significantly with fatigue, but fatigue was significantly associated with higher SHFM scores. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms were an important covariate of fatigue in patients with HFrEF. Our study findings were the first to show a positive association between fatigue and the SHFM score, indicating that fatigue was associated with poorer prognosis. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Sinnott B.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Sinnott B.,Mercy Hospital and Medical Center | Sinnott B.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Ron E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Schneider A.B.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Endocrine Reviews

Radiation exposure of the thyroid at a young age is a recognized risk factor for the development of differentiated thyroid cancer lasting for four decades and probably for a lifetime after exposure. Medical radiation exposure, however, occurs frequently, including among the pediatric population, which is especially sensitive to the effects of radiation. In the past, the treatment of benign medical conditions with external radiation represented the most significant thyroid radiation exposures. Today, diagnostic medical radiation represents the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. Radiation exposure related to the use of computerized tomography is rising exponentially, particularly in the pediatric population. There is direct epidemiological evidence of a small but significant increased risk of cancer at radiation doses equivalent to computerized tomography doses used today. Paralleling the increasing use of medical radiation is an increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer. At present, it is unclear how much of this increase is related to increased detection of subclinical disease from the increased utilization of ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration, how much is due to a true increase in thyroid cancer, and how much, if any, can be ascribed to medical radiation exposure. Fortunately, the amount of radiation exposure from medical sources can be reduced. In this article we review the sources of thyroid radiation exposure, radiation risks to the thyroid gland, strategies for reducing radiation exposure to the thyroid, and ways that endocrinologists can participate in this effort. Finally, we provide some suggestions for future research directions. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source

Omar H.R.,Mercy Hospital and Medical Center
The American journal of emergency medicine

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is usually caused by plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis of a single culprit vessel. In rare occasions, simultaneous thrombosis of 2 coronary arteries occurs, which is usually associated with a worse prognosis. Although surgery provokes hemodynamic stress, leading in some instances to myocardial ischemia due to supply/demand mismatch, other factors may also contribute to postoperative myocardial infarction. We present a case of postoperative simultaneous left anterior descending and right coronary stent thrombosis that followed cessation of long-term aspirin therapy in a patient with stable coronary artery disease. This case raises concerns with drug-eluting stents due to the higher potential for late stent thrombosis related to delayed endothelialization of the stent struts. Physicians should be very cautious when deciding to withdraw antiplatelet therapy preoperatively to avoid rebound coronary thrombosis. Source

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