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Ryan A.M.,University College Cork | Power D.G.,Mercy & Cork University Hospitals | Daly L.,University College Cork | Cushen S.J.,University College Cork | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

An awareness of the importance of nutritional status in hospital settings began more than 40 years ago. Much has been learned since and has altered care. For the past 40 years several large studies have shown that cancer patients are amongst the most malnourished of all patient groups. Recently, the use of gold-standard methods of body composition assessment, including computed tomography, has facilitated the understanding of the true prevalence of cancer cachexia (CC). CC remains a devastating syndrome affecting 50–80 % of cancer patients and it is responsible for the death of at least 20 %. The aetiology is multifactorial and complex; driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific tumour-derived factors, which initiate an energy-intensive acute phase protein response and drive the loss of skeletal muscle even in the presence of adequate food intake and insulin. The most clinically relevant phenotypic feature of CC is muscle loss (sarcopenia), as this relates to asthenia, fatigue, impaired physical function, reduced tolerance to treatments, impaired quality of life and reduced survival. Sarcopenia is present in 20–70 % depending on the tumour type. There is mounting evidence that sarcopenia increases the risk of toxicity to many chemotherapy drugs. However, identification of patients with muscle loss has become increasingly difficult as 40–60 % of cancer patients are overweight or obese, even in the setting of metastatic disease. Further challenges exist in trying to reverse CC and sarcopenia. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in sarcopenic patients and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms. Copyright © The Authors 2016 Source

Ryan S.A.,Mercy & Cork University Hospitals | MacEneaney P.,Mercy University Hospital | O'Reilly S.P.,Mercy & Cork University Hospitals | Moylan E.J.,Mercy & Cork University Hospitals | Power D.G.,Mercy & Cork University Hospitals
Medical Oncology

Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is a rare neurologic condition characterised by specific clinical and radiologic findings. It usually manifests subacutely as insidious onset of headache, visual disturbance, altered consciousness and seizures in association with MRI findings of posterior white matter vasogenic oedema. RPLS has been reported in a wide variety of clinical settings. Hypertension, eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, renal impairment, autoimmune conditions and cytotoxic drugs are all cited as aetiologic variables. RPLS, albeit rare, is an important entity for physicians to be aware of as early recognition, and prompt intervention is critical to ensure resolution of the neurological deficit. We describe the case of a 69-year-old lady who collapsed with seizure activity after receiving carboplatin and etoposide chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. In our opinion, the clinical and radiological courses are typical of RPLS. RPLS has rarely been reported secondary to this chemotherapy regimen, and the purpose of this report is to add to the literature and highlight the association between RPLS and cytotoxic chemotherapy. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

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