Bunting L.,University of Cardiff |
Tsibulsky I.,Merck Serono SA |
Boivin J.,University of Cardiff
Human Reproduction | Year: 2013
Study Question How good is fertility knowledge and what are treatment beliefs in an international sample of men and women currently trying to conceive? Summary Answer The study population had a modest level of fertility knowledge and held positive and negative views of treatment. What is Known AlreadyFew studies have examined general fertility treatment attitudes but studies of specific interventions show that attitudes are related to characteristics of the patient, doctor and context. Further, research shows that fertility knowledge is poor. However, the majority of these studies have examined the prevalence of infertility, the optimal fertile period and/or age-related infertility in women, in university students and/or people from high-resource countries making it difficult to generalize findings. Study Design , Size, DurationA cross-sectional sample completed the International Fertility Decision-making Study (IFDMS) over a 9-month period, online or via social research panels and in fertility clinics. Participants/Materials, Setting , Method SParticipants were 10 045 people (8355 women, 1690 men) who were on average 31.8 years old, had been trying to conceive for 2.8 years with 53.9% university educated. From a total of 79 countries, sample size was >100 in 18 countries. All 79 countries were assigned to either a very high Human Development Index (VH HDI) or a not very high HDI (NVH HDI). The IFDMS was a 45-min, 64-item English survey translated into 12 languages. The inclusion criteria were the age between 18 and 50 years and currently trying to conceive for at least 6 months. Fertility knowledge was assessed using a 13-item correct/incorrect scale concerned with risk factors, misconceptions and basic fertility facts (range: 0-100% correct). Treatment beliefs were assessed with positive and negative statements about fertility treatment rated on a five-point agree/disagree response scale. Main Results and the Role of Chance Average correct score for Fertility Knowledge was 56.9%, with greater knowledge significantly related to female gender, university education, paid employment, VH HDI and prior medical consultation for infertility (all P < 0.001). The mean agreement scores for treatment beliefs showed that agreement for positive items (safety, efficacy) was correlated with agreement for negative items (short/long-term physical/emotional effects) (P > 0.001). People who had given birth/fathered a child, been trying to conceive for less than 12 months, who had never consulted for a fertility problem and who lived in a country with an NVH HDI agreed less with negative beliefs. HDI, duration of trying to conceive and help-seeking were also correlates of higher positive beliefs, alongside younger age, living in an urban area and having stepchildren. Greater fertility knowledge was associated with stronger agreement on negative treatment beliefs items (P < 0.001) but was unrelated to positive treatment beliefs items. Limitations , Reasons for Caution There was volunteer bias insofar as more women, people of higher education and people with fertility problems (i.e. met criteria for infertility, had consulted a medical doctor, had conceived with fertility treatment) participated and this was true in VH and NVH HDI countries. The bias may mean that people in this sample had better fertility knowledge and less favourable treatment beliefs than is the case in the general population. Wider Implications of the FindingsEducational interventions should be directed at improving knowledge of fertility health. Future prospective research should be aimed at investigating how fertility knowledge and treatment beliefs affect childbearing and help-seeking decision-making. Study Funding/Competing Interest (S)Merck-Serono S. A. Geneva-Switzerland (an affiliate of Merck KGaA Darmstadt, Germany) and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC, UK) funded this project (RES-355-25-0038, 'Fertility Pathways Network'). L.B. is funded by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the ESRC (PTA-037-27-0192). I.T. is an employee of Merck-Serono S. A. Geneva-Switzerland (an affiliate of Merck KGaA Darmstadt, Germany). © 2012 The Author.
Weggen S.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf |
Beher D.,Merck Serono SA
Alzheimer's Research and Therapy | Year: 2012
Mutations in both the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the presenilin (PSEN) genes cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) with autosomal dominant inheritance and early onset of disease. The clinical course and neuropathology of FAD and sporadic Alzheimer's disease are highly similar, and patients with FAD constitute a unique population in which to conduct treatment and, in particular, prevention trials with novel pharmaceutical entities. It is critical, therefore, to exactly defi ne the molecular consequences of APP and PSEN FAD mutations. Both APP and PSEN mutations drive amyloidosis in FAD patients through changes in the brain metabolism of amyloid- (A) peptides that promote the formation of pathogenic aggregates. APP mutations do not seem to impair the physiological functions of APP. In contrast, it has been proposed that PSEN mutations compromise -secretase-dependent and -independent functions of PSEN. However, PSEN mutations have mostly been studied in model systems that do not accurately refl ect the genetic background in FAD patients. In this review, we discuss the reported cellular phenotypes of APP and PSEN mutations, the current understanding of their molecular mechanisms, the need to generate faithful models of PSEN mutations, and the potential bias of APP and PSEN mutations on therapeutic strategies that target A. © 2012 BioMed Central Ltd.
Merck Serono SA | Date: 2013-07-11
The invention provides novel, substituted 3-arylamino pyridine compounds pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates and prodrug compounds thereof, wherein W, R1, R2, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14 are as defined in the specification. Such compounds are MEK inhibitors and useful in the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases, such as cancer, restenosis and inflammation. Also disclosed is the use of such compounds in the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases in mammals, especially humans, and pharmaceutical compositions containing such compounds.
Merck Serono S.A. | Date: 2014-02-07
The present invention is related to thiazole derivatives of Formula (I) in particular for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of autoimmune disorders and/or inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neturodegenerative diseases, bacterial or viral infections, kidney diseases, platelet aggregation, cancer, transplantation, graft rejection or lung injuries.
Merck Serono SA | Date: 2013-06-18
This invention relates to a method of treating and/or preventing endometriosis comprising administering a JNK inhibitor. The JNK inhibitor can also be administered combined with a hormonal suppressor. The invention further relates to the treatment of endometriosis.