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Iaconelli C.,CNRS Food Processing and Microbiology Laboratory | Lemetais G.,Merck Medication Familiale | Kechaou N.,Institute Micalis | Chain F.,Institute Micalis | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biotechnology

Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Merck Medication Familiale | Date: 2008-01-15

Soaps; perfumery, essential oils, cosmetics. Pharmaceutical preparations for the protection, maintenance, care, hygiene and treatment of the skin.

Popova M.,Biofortis | Molimard P.,Merck Medication Familiale | Courau S.,Merck Medication Familiale | Crociani J.,Silliker | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology

Probiotics are live micro-organisms with beneficial effects on human health, which have the ability to counteract infections at different locations of the body. Clinical trials have shown that probiotics can be used as preventive and therapeutic agents in upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and otitis. Their mechanical properties allow them to aggregate and to compete with pathogens for nutrients, space and attachment to host cells. Consequently, they can directly antagonize pathogens and thus exert beneficial effects without directly affecting the metabolism of the host. An overview of the probiotics with such traits, tested up to date in clinical trials for the prevention or treatment of URTIs and otitis, is presented in this review. Their mechanical properties in the respiratory tract as well as at other locations are also cited. Species with interesting in vitro properties towards pharyngeal cells or against common respiratory pathogens have also been included. The potential safety risks of the cited species are then discussed. This review could be of help in the screening of probiotic strains with specific mechanical properties susceptible to have positive effects in clinical trials against URTIs. © 2012 Biofortis SAS. Source

Luton D.,University Paris Diderot | Forestier A.,Merck Medication Familiale | Courau S.,Merck Medication Familiale | Ceccaldi P.-F.,University Paris Diderot
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics

Objective Preconception care is advocated throughout the world as a tool for improving perinatal outcomes. However, the proportion of women in France who attend a dedicated medical preconception visit is unknown. Methods We undertook a retrospective study among 401 women who delivered at a maternity clinic or hospital in France to determine how many of them had attended a preconception visit. We also collected information on various preconception care behaviors such as folate supplementation and alcohol or tobacco cessation. Results In total, 21.6% of the women took a folate prescription, and 91.3% and 68.6% of women stopped alcohol and tobacco consumption, respectively. Of the 80.2% of women who visited a doctor within the 6 months before conception, only 13.8% discussed their planned pregnancy at this visit. Conclusion Although the rate of vitamin supplementation remains low, there has been an increase in adequate preconception care behavior. This indicates that improvement is possible and should be implemented. © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Source

Kechaou N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kechaou N.,Agro ParisTech | Chain F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chain F.,Agro ParisTech | And 15 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology

In this study, we developed a large-scale screening of bacterial strains in order to identify novel candidate probiotics with immunomodulatory properties. For this, 158 strains, including a majority of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), were screened by two different cellular models: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-activated HT-29 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Different strains responsive to both models (pro- and anti-inflammatory strains) were selected, and their protective effects were tested in vivo in a murine model of influenza virus infection. Daily intragastric administrations during 10 days before and 10 days after viral challenge (100 PFU of influenza virus H1N1 strain A Puerto Rico/8/1934 [A/PR8/34]/mouse) of Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ1997, one potentially proinflammatory probiotic strain, led to a significant improvement in mouse health by reducing weight loss, alleviating clinical symptoms, and inhibiting significantly virus proliferation in lungs. In conclusion, in this study, we have combined two cellular models to allow the screening of a large number of LAB for their immunomodulatory properties. Moreover, we identified a novel candidate probiotic strain, L. plantarum CNRZ1997, active against influenza virus infection in mice. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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